Focal adjustment and zooming are universal features of cameras and advanced optical systems. Such tuning is usually performed longitudinally along the optical axis by mechanical or electrical control of focal length. However, the recent advent of ultrathin planar lenses based on metasurfaces (metalenses), which opens the door to future drastic miniaturization of mobile devices such as cell phones and wearable displays, mandates fundamentally different forms of tuning based on lateral motion rather than longitudinal motion. Theory shows that the strain field of a metalens substrate can be directly mapped into the outgoing optical wavefront to achieve large diffraction-limited focal length tuning and control of aberrations. We demonstrate electrically tunable large-area metalenses controlled by artificial muscles capable of simultaneously performing focal length tuning (>100%) as well as on-the-fly astigmatism and image shift corrections, which until now were only possible in electron optics. The device thickness is only 30 μm. Our results demonstrate the possibility of future optical microscopes that fully operate electronically, as well as compact optical systems that use the principles of adaptive optics to correct many orders of aberrations simultaneously.
Laser sensing has been applied in various underwater applications, ranging from underwater detection to laser underwater communications. However, there are several great challenges when profiling underwater turbulence effects. Underwater detection is greatly affected by the turbulence effect, where the acquired image suffers excessive noise, blurring, and deformation. In this paper, we propose a novel underwater turbulence detection method based on a gated wavefront sensing technique. First, we elaborate on the operating principle of gated wavefront sensing and wavefront reconstruction. We then setup an experimental system in order to validate the feasibility of our proposed method. The effect of underwater turbulence on detection is examined at different distances, and under different turbulence levels. The experimental results obtained from our gated wavefront sensing system indicate that underwater turbulence can be detected and analyzed. The proposed gated wavefront sensing system has the advantage of a simple structure and high detection efficiency for underwater environments.
PURPOSE: To assess the intrasession and intersession precision of ocular, corneal, and internal higher-order aberrations (HOAs) measured using an integrated topographer and Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor (Topcon KR-1W) in refractive surgery candidates. SETTING: IOBA-Eye Institute, Valladolid, Spain. DESIGN: Evaluation of diagnostic technology. METHODS: To analyze intrasession repeatability, 1 experienced examiner measured eyes 9 times successively. To study intersession reproducibility, the same clinician obtained measurements from another set of eyes in 2 consecutive sessions 1 week apart. Ocular, corneal, and internal HOAs were obtained. Coma and spherical aberrations, 3rd- and 4th-order aberrations, and total HOAs were calculated for a 6.0 mm pupil diameter. RESULTS: For intrasession repeatability (75 eyes), excellent intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were obtained (ICC >0.87), except for internal primary coma (ICC = 0.75) and 3rd-order (ICC = 0.72) HOAs. Repeatability precision (1.96 × S(w)) values ranged from 0.03 μm (corneal primary spherical) to 0.08 μm (ocular primary coma). For intersession reproducibility (50 eyes), ICCs were good (>0.8) for ocular primary spherical, 3rd-order, and total higher-order aberrations; reproducibility precision values ranged from 0.06 μm (corneal primary spherical) to 0.21 μm (internal 3rd order), with internal HOAs having the lowest precision (≥0.12 μm). No systematic bias was found between examinations on different days. CONCLUSIONS: The intrasession repeatability was high; therefore, the device’s ability to measure HOAs in a reliable way was excellent. Under intersession reproducibility conditions, dependable corneal primary spherical aberrations were provided. FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE: No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned.
We address new optical nano-antenna systems with tunable highly directional radiation patterns. The antenna comprises a regular linear array of metal nanoparticles in the proximity of an interface with high dielectric contrast. We show that the radiation pattern of the system can be controlled by changing parameters of the excitation, such as, the polarization and/or incidence angles. In the case of excitation under the total reflection condition, the system operates as a nanoscopic source of radiation, converting the macroscopic incident plane wave front into a narrow beam of light with adjustable characteristics. We derive also simple analytical formulas which give an excellent description of the radiation pattern and provide a useful tool for analysis and antenna design.
Using a descanned, laser-induced guide star and direct wavefront sensing, we demonstrate adaptive correction of complex optical aberrations at high numerical aperture (NA) and a 14-ms update rate. This correction permits us to compensate for the rapid spatial variation in aberration often encountered in biological specimens and to recover diffraction-limited imaging over large volumes (>240 mm per side). We applied this to image fine neuronal processes and subcellular dynamics within the zebrafish brain.
We improve multiphoton structured illumination microscopy using a nonlinear guide star to determine optical aberrations and a deformable mirror to correct them. We demonstrate our method on bead phantoms, cells in collagen gels, nematode larvae and embryos, Drosophila brain, and zebrafish embryos. Peak intensity is increased (up to 40-fold) and resolution recovered (up to 176 ± 10 nm laterally, 729 ± 39 nm axially) at depths ∼250 μm from the coverslip surface.
The control and use of light polarization in optical sciences and engineering are widespread. Despite remarkable developments in polarization-resolved imaging for life sciences, their transposition to strongly scattering media is currently not possible, because of the inherent depolarization effects arising from multiple scattering. We show an unprecedented phenomenon that opens new possibilities for polarization-resolved microscopy in strongly scattering media: polarization recovery via broadband wavefront shaping. We demonstrate focusing and recovery of the original injected polarization state without using any polarizing optics at the detection. To enable molecular-level structural imaging, an arbitrary rotation of the input polarization does not degrade the quality of the focus. We further exploit the robustness of polarization recovery for structural imaging of biological tissues through scattering media. We retrieve molecular-level organization information of collagen fibers by polarization-resolved second harmonic generation, a topic of wide interest for diagnosis in biomedical optics. Ultimately, the observation of this new phenomenon paves the way for extending current polarization-based methods to strongly scattering environments.
Adaptive optics can correct for optical aberrations. We developed multi-pupil adaptive optics (MPAO), which enables simultaneous wavefront correction over a field of view of 450 × 450 μm(2) and expands the correction area to nine times that of conventional methods. MPAO’s ability to perform spatially independent wavefront control further enables 3D nonplanar imaging. We applied MPAO to in vivo structural and functional imaging in the mouse brain.
We report on the wavefront correction of a terahertz (THz) beam using adaptive optics, which requires both a wavefront sensor that is able to sense the optical aberrations, as well as a wavefront corrector. The wavefront sensor relies on a direct 2D electro-optic imaging system composed of a ZnTe crystal and a CMOS camera. By measuring the phase variation of the THz electric field in the crystal, we were able to minimize the geometrical aberrations of the beam, thanks to the action of a deformable mirror. This phase control will open the route to THz adaptive optics in order to optimize the THz beam quality for both practical and fundamental applications.
We present a device, similar to a Shack-Hartmann sensor, that can detect both the intensity distribution and wavefront of an incident wave. Its operation is based on the use of an array of electrically controllable Fresnel zone plates made in a ferroelectric crystal, lithium niobate. This sensor, which requires only one camera, can be quickly switched between intensity- and phase-detecting modes. Two kinds of arrays are shown: Fresnel zone plates with a few ring-shaped ferroelectric domains and plates made with nested hexagonal domains. Both arrays are suitable for use in a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. However, since in lithium niobate domains naturally tend to form hexagons, it is easier to make hexagonal, rather than ring-shaped, domains and, consequently, smaller zone plates can be produced. This allows an increase in the number of zone plates and a reduction in their focal length, which improves the fidelity of the reconstructed wavefront.