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Concept: Wart


Genital warts are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV is a leading cause of anogenital malignancies and a role of HPV in the aetiology of oro-pharyngeal cancers has been demonstrated. The frequency of oral HPV infection in patients with genital warts and the association between concomitant genital, anal and oral infection is unclear. A total of 201 men and women with genital wart-like lesions were recruited. Swab samples were obtained from the genital warts and the anal canal and an oral rinse was collected. Anal HPV was found in 46.2% and oral HPV in 10.4% of the participants. Concordance between anal and genital wart HPV types was 78.1%, while concordance between oral and genital wart types was 60.9%. A lower concordance of 21.7% was observed between anal and oral HPV types. Significantly more women than men had multiple HPV types and anal HPV. In conclusion, extra genital HPV is common in patients with genital warts. A gender inequality seems to exist.

Concepts: Cancer, Human papillomavirus, Papillomavirus, Anal cancer, Plantar wart, Genital wart, Wart, Vulvar cancer


Several studies have assessed the epidemiology of HPV infection among MSM, but no qualitative studies have specifically assessed how HPV and genital warts (GW) affect South American men who have sex with men (MSM) and male-to-female transgendered women (TG). This study explored the knowledge, attitudes and experiences of Peruvian MSM and TG regarding HPV and GW.

Concepts: Human papillomavirus, Gender, Oral sex, Woman, South America, Transgender, Genital wart, Wart


In a large health insurance database in Germany, incidence of anogenital warts among 15- to 19-year-old females decreased from 316/100,000 person-years in 2007 to 242 in 2008 (23% reduction, P = 0.0001). The decrease started between the first and second quarter of 2007 (human papillomavirus vaccination was introduced in March 2007).

Concepts: Health insurance, Human, Human papillomavirus, Papillomavirus, HPV vaccine, Introduction, Genital wart, Wart


Cantharidin is a widely used treatment for molluscum contagiosum (MC) that is often favored because of its speed of application and lack of pain at the time of application. Previous studies have supported its safety and reported high parental and dermatologist satisfaction with its use. Nonetheless, a lack of safety data has contributed to ambiguous U.S. Food and Drug Administration status that has made it increasingly difficult to obtain. All children treated with cantharidin for MC at a tertiary care center between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2011, who had at least one follow-up visit or telephone call were included in the current study. Information related to treatment with cantharidin and adverse effects was abstracted from medical records. Of 512 children identified, 405 had at least one follow-up visit or telephone call after treatment and were included in this study. Cantharidin was applied to 9,688 lesions over 1,056 visits. Fifty-seven percent of children experienced blistering, an expected effect of therapy. Eleven percent of patients experienced adverse events. The most common adverse events were pain (7%) and significant blistering (2.5%). Other side effects were rare (<1%) and included pruritus, possible mild infection, significant irritation, id reactions, and bleeding. Eighty-six percent of parents reported satisfaction with cantharidin or opted to use it again. Cantharidin is a safe treatment modality for MC and should be considered when symptomatic infection necessitates treatment. The cantharidin application protocol used in this study may serve as a model protocol with a known side-effect profile.

Concepts: Immune system, Medicine, Adverse effect, Tertiary referral hospital, Molluscum contagiosum, Iatrogenesis, Wart, Cantharidin


Leflunomide (LEF) is an immune modulator used most commonly for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The mechanisms of action of LEF also include anti-microbial effects, particularly anti-viral effects.
OBSERVATIONS: We present three patients with atopic dermatitis on azathioprine therapy who had multiple verrucae and in two molluscum contagiosum (MC) that were resistant to repeated conventional therapies. These patients were switched to LEF, and all the patients showed complete resolution of their verrucae and MC within 2 months of starting therapy. In addition, all three patients showed equivalent to better control of their atopic dermatitis with LEF.
CONCLUSIONS: LEF has previously been reported to be a useful immune modulator for the treatment of severe atopic dermatitis. The spectrum of anti-viral effects previously seen with leflunomide did appear beneficial in these patients in clearing verrucae and MC, which had been resistant to conventional therapies while the patients were on azathioprine.

J Drugs Dermatol. 2015;14(3):230-234.

Concepts: Inflammation, Rheumatoid arthritis, Rheumatology, Molluscum contagiosum, Psoriatic arthritis, Atopic dermatitis, Wart, Cantharidin


Warts and molluscum contagiosum are very common viral skin infections, usually presenting in childhood. Despite the large number of people affected by them, high-quality trials of treatment are few and treatment is often chosen on the basis of cost, convenience and tradition.

Concepts: Infectious disease, Molluscum contagiosum, Number names, Wart, Virus-related cutaneous conditions, Cantharidin


Pediatric skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) constitute a significant number of office-based pediatric visits. With SSTIs on the rise, it is not only important to effectively treat the individual, but to do so appropriately and cost-consciously. In this article, we highlight new research related to the treatment of bacterial skin infections, molluscum contagiosum, and cutaneous warts, with the goal of guiding pediatricians in their practice against these common skin conditions.

Concepts: Staphylococcus, Tissues, Skin, Tissue, Molluscum contagiosum, Wart, Virus-related cutaneous conditions, Cantharidin



Since the introduction of Australia’s human papillomavirus vaccination program, the management rate of genital warts in sexual health clinics and private hospitals has decreased in women of vaccine-eligible age. However, most genital warts in Australia are managed in general practice. This study examines whether a similar decrease occurred in Australian general practice after the introduction of the program.

Concepts: Human papillomavirus, Papillomavirus, HPV vaccine, Anal cancer, Genital wart, Wart


Acral melanoma is a great pretender; anything but i nfrequently, it adopts clinical faces, simulating skin conditions that make the healthcare provider diagnose it as a benign disease of the palms, soles, and ungual regions. We present a case of a hyperkeratotic acral melanoma that has been misdiagnosed and that has led to an amputation of the thumb.

Concepts: Health care, Health care provider, Medicine, Melanoma, Melanocytic nevi and neoplasms, Acral lentiginous melanoma, Wart, Verruca plana