Concept: War on Terrorism
Financial ties between health professionals and industry may unduly influence professional judgments and some researchers have suggested that widening disease definitions may be one driver of over-diagnosis, bringing potentially unnecessary labeling and harm. We aimed to identify guidelines in which disease definitions were changed, to assess whether any proposed changes would increase the numbers of individuals considered to have the disease, whether potential harms of expanding disease definitions were investigated, and the extent of members' industry ties.
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a leading cause of death in the United States and often occurs without previous cardiac symptoms. Lifetime risk for SCD and the influence of established risk factors on lifetime risks for SCD have not been estimated previously.
Although there had been only two cases of Ebola transmission inside the United States and both patients had survived, a November 2014 opinion poll revealed that the U.S. public ranked Ebola as the third-most-urgent health problem facing the country - just below cost and access and higher than any other disease, including cancer or heart disease, which together account for nearly half of all U.S. deaths each year (see Table S1 in the Supplementary Appendix, available with the full text of this article at NEJM.org). The U.S. public’s high ranking of a disease is important because it can influence policy leaders' . . .
To examine a potential increase in marijuana initiation among US college students as compared with their age peers not in college before and after 2013, a watershed year for increasing tolerance of marijuana use in the United States.
The growing wealth of information regarding the influence that physicochemical characteristics play on nanoparticle biocompatibility and safety is allowing improved design and rationale for their development and preclinical assessment. Accurate and appropriate measurement of these characteristics accompanied by informed toxicological assessment is a necessity for the development of safe and effective nanomedicines. While particle type, formulation and mode of administration dictate the individual causes for concern through development, the benefits of nanoformulation for treatment of the diseased state are great. Here we have proposed certain considerations and suggestions, which could lead to better-informed preclinical assessment of nanomaterials for nanomedicine, as well as how this information can and should be extrapolated to the physiological state of the end user.
To investigate the impact on alcohol-involved crash deaths of universal ignition interlock requirements, which aim to prevent people convicted of driving under the influence of alcohol from driving while intoxicated.
Recent advances in the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM) have been associated with improved survival, predominantly among young and white patients. The authors hypothesized that sociodemographic factors, adjusted for race/ethnicity, influence the survival of younger patients with MM.
Despite the benefits of breastfeeding, rates in the United States are low. Shorter maternity leave is associated with lower initiation and shorter durations of breastfeeding; however, little is known about how paid maternity leave may influence breastfeeding rates.
The terrorist attacks that occurred on September 11, 2001 (hereafter referred to as 9/11) in the United States had a profound impact on the physical and mental health of Americans, but the effects beyond the United States are largely unknown. To understand the wider aftermath, we examined the consequences of the 9/11 attacks on mental disorders in the Kingdom of Denmark. Utilizing population data from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register from 1995 to 2012, we used a time-series intervention approach to estimate the change in the incidence rate of mental disorders after the 9/11 attacks. Based on analyses of 1,448,250 contacts with psychiatric services, we found that the attacks were followed by an immediate 16% increase in the incidence rate of trauma- and stressor-related disorders. This surge dissipated approximately a year after 9/11. In contrast, no similar increases were found for other disorders. This is consistent with the prominent role of external stressors in the etiology of trauma- and stressor-related disorders. The results indicate that the effects of 9/11 on mental disorders extended across the Atlantic Ocean to Denmark. Thus, the impact of terrorist attacks on mental health is likely not limited to inhabitants of the country under attack; it also extends to people far away and without immediate relation to it.
Despite a strong link between antibiotic use and resistance, and highly variable antibiotic consumption rates across the USA, drivers of differences in consumption rates are not fully understood. The objective of this study was to examine how provider density affects antibiotic prescribing rates across socioeconomic groups in the USA.