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Concept: Vomiting


Human noroviruses (NoV) are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Epidemiological studies of outbreaks have suggested that vomiting facilitates transmission of human NoV, but there have been no laboratory-based studies characterizing the degree of NoV release during a vomiting event. The purpose of this work was to demonstrate that virus aerosolization occurs in a simulated vomiting event, and to estimate the amount of virus that is released in those aerosols. A simulated vomiting device was constructed at one-quarter scale of the human body following similitude principles. Simulated vomitus matrices at low (6.24 mPa*s) and high (177.5 mPa*s) viscosities were inoculated with low (108 PFU/mL) and high (1010 PFU/mL) concentrations of bacteriophage MS2 and placed in the artificial “stomach” of the device, which was then subjected to scaled physiologically relevant pressures associated with vomiting. Bio aerosols were captured using an SKC Biosampler. In low viscosity artificial vomitus, there were notable differences between recovered aerosolized MS2 as a function of pressure (i.e., greater aerosolization with increased pressure), although this was not always statistically significant. This relationship disappeared when using high viscosity simulated vomitus. The amount of MS2 aerosolized as a percent of total virus “vomited” ranged from 7.2 x 10-5 to 2.67 x 10-2 (which corresponded to a range of 36 to 13,350 PFU total). To our knowledge, this is the first study to document and measure aerosolization of a NoV surrogate in a similitude-based physical model. This has implications for better understanding the transmission dynamics of human NoV and for risk modeling purposes, both of which can help in designing effective infection control measures.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Microbiology, Virus, Bacteriophage, Vomiting, Gastroenteritis, Norovirus, Nausea


Roughly one in three individuals is highly susceptible to motion sickness and yet the underlying causes of this condition are not well understood. Despite high heritability, no associated genetic factors have been discovered. Here, we conducted the first genome-wide association study on motion sickness in 80,494 individuals from the 23andMe database who were surveyed about car sickness. Thirty-five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were associated with motion sickness at a genome-wide-significant level (p<5×10-8). Many of these SNPs are near genes involved in balance, and eye, ear, and cranial development (e.g., PVRL3, TSHZ1, MUTED, HOXB3, HOXD3). Other SNPs may affect motion sickness through nearby genes with roles in the nervous system, glucose homeostasis, or hypoxia. We show that several of these SNPs display sex-specific effects, with up to three times stronger effects in women. We searched for comorbid phenotypes with motion sickness, confirming associations with known comorbidities including migraines, postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), vertigo, and morning sickness, and observing new associations with altitude sickness and many gastrointestinal conditions. We also show that two of these related phenotypes (PONV and migraines) share underlying genetic factors with motion sickness. These results point to the importance of the nervous system in motion sickness and suggest a role for glucose levels in motion-induced nausea and vomiting, a finding that may provide insight into other nausea-related phenotypes like PONV. They also highlight personal characteristics (e.g., being a poor sleeper) that correlate with motion sickness, findings that could help identify risk factors or treatments.

Concepts: Central nervous system, DNA, Genetics, Bioinformatics, Vomiting, Nausea, Metoclopramide, Postoperative nausea and vomiting


Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG), or intractable vomiting during pregnancy, is the single most frequent cause of hospital admission in early pregnancy. HG has a major impact on maternal quality of life and has repeatedly been associated with poor pregnancy outcome such as low birth weight. Currently, women with HG are admitted to hospital for intravenous fluid replacement, without receiving specific nutritional attention. Nasogastric tube feeding is sometimes used as last resort treatment. At present no randomised trials on dietary or rehydration interventions have been performed. Small observational studies indicate that enteral tube feeding may have the ability to effectively treat dehydration and malnutrition and alleviate nausea and vomiting symptoms. We aim to evaluate the effectiveness of early enteral tube feeding in addition to standard care on nausea and vomiting symptoms and pregnancy outcomes in HG patients.

Concepts: Nutrition, Obstetrics, Dehydration, Vomiting, Nausea, Hyperemesis gravidarum, Morning sickness


Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG), severe nausea and vomiting of pregnancy, occurs in 0.3-2% of pregnancies and is associated with maternal and fetal morbidity. The cause of HG remains unknown, but familial aggregation and results of twin studies suggest that understanding the genetic contribution is essential for comprehending the disease etiology. Here, we conduct a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for binary (HG) and ordinal (severity of nausea and vomiting) phenotypes of pregnancy complications. Two loci, chr19p13.11 and chr4q12, are genome-wide significant (p < 5 × 10-8) in both association scans and are replicated in an independent cohort. The genes implicated at these two loci are GDF15 and IGFBP7 respectively, both known to be involved in placentation, appetite, and cachexia. While proving the casual roles of GDF15 and IGFBP7 in nausea and vomiting of pregnancy requires further study, this GWAS provides insights into the genetic risk factors contributing to the disease.

Concepts: Pregnancy, Genetics, Fetus, Genome-wide association study, Vomiting, Nausea, Hyperemesis gravidarum, Morning sickness


Objectives To determine whether preoperative dexamethasone reduces postoperative vomiting in patients undergoing elective bowel surgery and whether it is associated with other measurable benefits during recovery from surgery, including quicker return to oral diet and reduced length of stay.Design Pragmatic two arm parallel group randomised trial with blinded postoperative care and outcome assessment.Setting 45 UK hospitals.Participants 1350 patients aged 18 or over undergoing elective open or laparoscopic bowel surgery for malignant or benign pathology.Interventions Addition of a single dose of 8 mg intravenous dexamethasone at induction of anaesthesia compared with standard care.Main outcome measures Primary outcome: reported vomiting within 24 hours reported by patient or clinician.

Concepts: Hospital, Randomized controlled trial, Surgery, Anesthesia, Vomiting, Laparoscopic surgery, Postoperative nausea and vomiting, Hypnosurgery


Nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy (NVEP) is commonly encountered in family medicine. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is a popular nonpharmacological treatment but consensus of its use is lacking.

Concepts: Vomiting, Nausea, Ginger, Morning sickness, Zingiberaceae, Zingiber, Motion sickness, Seasickness


We examined the efficacy of olanzapine for the prevention of nausea and vomiting in patients receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy.

Concepts: Chemotherapy, Serotonin, Vomiting, Gastroenteritis, Nausea


Abstract Cyclical vomiting syndrome (CVS) is a disorder that occurs mostly in children, adolescents and young adults in which episodes of nausea and vomiting occur up to six to 12 times per year. In the past decade, one specific cause of cyclical vomiting syndrome, referred to as cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS), has been described in a subset of patients who report chronic marijuana use. Of interest, almost all of these patients report compulsive bathing in hot water as part of the syndrome. In this report, we present the case of a 20-year-old female with CHS, review the issues generally encountered in CVS and discuss the known details of CHS. This is an important syndrome that needs to be considered as a potential diagnosis when patients present with cyclical vomiting.

Concepts: Time, Cannabis, Vomiting, Ondansetron, Nausea, Hyperemesis gravidarum, Morning sickness, Cyclic vomiting syndrome


Cystinosis is the major cause of inherited Fanconi syndrome, and should be suspected in young children with a failure to thrive and with signs of renal proximal tubular damage. This is a study of a case report of cystinosis revealed by a growth failure and chronic dehydration. A 9-month-old boy was referred to our department for evaluation of polyuria and polydipsia. Clinical examination showed dehydration and enlarged wrists and rachitic rosaries. The presence of metabolic acidosis, hypokalemia, hypochloremia with proteinuria, polyuria, and hypercalciuria was suggestive of inherited Fanconi syndrome. The diagnosis of cystinosis was confirmed by an increased leukocyte cystine level.

Concepts: Nephrology, Diabetes mellitus, Cystinosis, Vomiting, Polyuria, Cystine, Renal tubular acidosis, Fanconi syndrome


A 44-year-old man presented to the emergency department with chest pain that had started 1 hour earlier and had awakened him from sleep. The pain was severe, substernal, burning, radiating to the left arm, and accompanied by nausea and vomiting.

Concepts: Myocardial infarction, Opioid, Vomiting, Ireland, Nausea, Dublin