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Concept: Volleyball


The goal of the current study was to investigate the relationship between sport expertise and perceptual and cognitive skills, as measured by the component skills approach. We hypothesized that athletes would outperform non-athlete controls in a number of perceptual and cognitive domains and that sport expertise would minimize gender differences. A total of 154 individuals (87 professional volleyball players and 67 non-athlete controls) participated in the study. Participants performed a cognitive battery, which included tests of executive control, memory, and visuo-spatial attention. Athletes showed superior performance speed on three tasks (two executive control tasks and one visuo-spatial attentional processing task). In a subset of tasks, gender effects were observed mainly in the control group, supporting the notion that athletic experience can reduce traditional gender effects. The expertise effects obtained substantiate the view that laboratory tests of cognition may indeed enlighten the sport-cognition relationship.

Concepts: Scientific method, Psychology, Cognitive psychology, Cognition, Mind, Gender role, Hypothesis, Volleyball


Accurate knowledge of the body build of top sports level volleyball player’s is an important information as it is the basis for designation of model body build parameters, body proportions, and build type for a given playing position.

Concepts: Volleyball, Body proportions, Vitruvian Man


The present study aims to assess motor activity of volleyball players using an original video recording method developed by the authors. 28 volleyball players taking part in four matches of the Polish Volleyball League were examined. The recorded data were analyzed in view of the mean total distance covered by volleyball players on different court positions during a match, set and rally. The results showed that volleyball players cover the mean total distance of 1221 ± 327 m (mean ± SD) in a three-set match, and 1757 ± 462 m in a four-set match. A statistically significant difference (p ≤ 0,005) was found between the distance covered by the middle blockers and setters, defenders, spikers and libero players in a match and in a set. The study revealed a tendency to lengthen the distance by the players in the final sets, which is indicative of the extended time of individual rallies. The mean distance covered in a single rally amounted to 10,92 ± 0.9 m in four matches (between 9,12 m and 12,56 m).Considering the limited size of the field of play, volleyball players cover relatively long distances during a match as well as individual sets, with the shortest distance covered by middle blockers, and the longest by setters.From a practical application point of view detailed topographic analysis of a player’s movements on the court as well as precise data on the time of activity and rest breaks provide the coach with valuable information on the ways of development of arrhythmic, changing and dynamic training loads.

Concepts: Statistics, Statistical significance, Real number, Players, Distance, Player, The Players, Volleyball


Vertical jump performance is one of the key factors in basketball. In order to determine the effectiveness of previously published interventions and their influencing factors we performed a meta- analysis. A computerized search was conducted using the databases PubMed (1966), Web of Science (1900), SPORTDiscus™ (1975),Medline (1966) and SportPilot (2008). Studies involving healthy male or female basketball players at any age and performance level were included. All trials had to investigate the benefits of resistance training programs on jumping performance in basketball players and provide a control group. The effect size (ES) was computed and the relationship between ESs and continuous variables was examined by meta-regressions, whereas subgroup meta- analyses and z-tests were used to assess the impact of categorical moderator variables. The meta-analysis included 14 studies with 20 subgroups and a total of 37 outcomes. A total of 399 participants were examined, n = 157 served as control and n = 242 took part in particular training interventions. The overall weighted ES of 0.78 (95% CI 0.41, 1.15) was significantly greater than zero (p < 0.001). None of the categorical moderator variables affected the training effect. However, positive correlations were found for training duration (r = 0.68 ; p = 0.02). The present meta- analysis demonstrates that resistance training throughout the year, using bodyweight or external weight, significantly improves vertical jump performance in healthy basketball players. Since vertical jump improvements were independent of intervention period but dependent on the duration of each individual training session the total training amount should be based on longer training sessions.

Concepts: Effect, Effectiveness, Effect size, Meta-analysis, Gene V. Glass, Vertical jump, Volleyball, Basketball statistics


The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship of vertical jump (Abalakov jump, AJ) with anthropometric and physiological parameters in youth elite female volleyball players.

Concepts: Vertical jump, Volleyball


to assess the effects of Static (SS) and Dynamic Stretching (DS) on vertical jump performance executed before, immediately after and at the end of the shooting phase (i.e., 15 min later), as to simulate the actual conditions preceding a match, in professional basketball players.

Concepts: English-language films, Stretching, Basketball, Vertical jump, Volleyball, Basketball statistics, Dynamic stretching, Point shaving


The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible arm swing effect on the biomechanical parameters of vertical counter movement jump due to differences of the compliance of the take-off surface. Fifteen elite male beach-volleyball players (26.2 ± 5.9 years; 1.87 ± 0.05 m; 83.4 ± 6.0 kg; mean ± standard deviation, respectively) performed counter movement jumps on sand and on a rigid surface with and without an arm swing. Results showed significant (p < .05) surface effects on the jump height, the ankle joint angle at the lowest height of the body center of mass and the ankle angular velocity. Also, significant arm swing effects were found on jump height, maximum power output, temporal parameters, range of motion and angular velocity of the hip. These findings could be attributed to the instability of the sand, which resulted in reduced peak power output due to the differences of body configuration at the lowest body position and lower limb joints' range of motion. The combined effect of the backward arm swing and the recoil of the sand that resulted in decreased resistance at ankle plantar flexion should be controlled at the preparation of selected jumping tasks in beach-volleyball.

Concepts: Standard deviation, Joints, Angle, Ankle, Human leg, Jump, Volleyball, Beach volleyball


The aim of this work was to study anthropometric and performance measurements in 60 young male volleyball players (YV) and 60 youth not active in the sport (YNA) to assess which of these would be more useful to study the characteristics of potential performers.

Concepts: Energy, Performance, Potential energy, Performing arts, Conservative force, Volleyball


Little is known about the rate and pattern of injuries in international volleyball competition.

Concepts: Injuries, Injury, Volleyball


This systematic review was conducted to evaluate the effect of Olympic weightlifting (OW) on vertical jump (VJ) height compared to a control condition, traditional resistance training and plyometric training.

Concepts: Meta-analysis, Vertical jump, Volleyball, Weightlifting