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Concept: Vivica A. Fox


This study tested the measurement invariance of the Drinking Motives Questionnaire-Revised Short Form (DMQ-R-SF) in undergraduates across 10 countries. We expected the four-factor structure to hold across countries, and for social motives to emerge as the most commonly endorsed motive, followed by enhancement, coping and conformity motives. We also compared individualistic and collectivistic countries to examine potential differences in the endorsement of drinking motives when countries were divided according to this broad cultural value.

Concepts: Sociology, According to Jim, Motive, Vivica A. Fox


We examined generational differences in reasons for attending college among a nationally representative sample of college students (N = 8 million), 1971-2014. We validated the items on reasons for attending college against an established measure of extrinsic and intrinsic values among college students in 2014 (n = 189). Millennials (in college 2000s-2010s) and Generation X (1980s-1990s) valued extrinsic reasons for going to college (“to make more money”) more, and anti-extrinsic reasons (“to gain a general education and appreciation of ideas”) less than Boomers when they were the same age in the 1960s-1970s. Extrinsic reasons for going to college were higher in years with more income inequality, college enrollment, and extrinsic values. These results mirror previous research finding generational increases in extrinsic values begun by GenX and continued by Millennials, suggesting that more recent generations are more likely to favor extrinsic values in their decision-making.

Concepts: Education, Motivation, Economic inequality, Intrinsic and extrinsic properties, Generation Y, Generation, Generation X, Vivica A. Fox


The PA profession is 50 years young. Practicing PAs and current students hail from several generational categories ranging from Builders to Generation Z. This article reviews how different generations may have experienced PA program expansion, professional identity, state licensing, and prescription delegation. The authors sampled a cohort of PA program applicants about their views on what evokes optimism and concern for the PA profession. These themes mirror the recently paved professional road, while posing the all-important question: What construction lies on the horizon?

Concepts: Profession, Professional, Generation Y, Horizon, Generation, Strauss and Howe, Generation Z, Vivica A. Fox


Pictures are widely used as stimuli in implicit motive tests. Hybrid forms of such tests present pictures and declarative statements underneath pictures. Some authors have argued that explicitly declaring agreement with motive-related statements presented underneath pictures might shift the validity of such tests from capturing less implicit motives to more explicit motives. If that is the case, pictures as elicitors of implicit motives might become less relevant. Adopting the views on validity presented by Borsboom, Mellenbergh, and van Heerden ( 2004 ) and Bornstein ( 2011 ), as well as item generation theory, we investigated whether the availability of pictures in hybrid motive tests causally affects test scores. To this end, we administered the Multi-Motive Grid (MMG; Sokolowski, Schmalt, Langens, & Puca, 2000 ), as an example of a hybrid motive test, either with or without pictures to 108 participants. Results revealed that the availability of pictures had no effect on 3 out of 6 test scores. Furthermore, eliminating pictures had only inconsistent effects on correlations with a test of explicit motives. We conclude that pictures might not unanimously elicit motives in implicit motive tests that use declarative statements as response options.

Concepts: Effect, Affect, Psychometrics, Graphic design, Standardized test, Motive, Vivica A. Fox


In this research, we investigate impression management (IM) as a substantive personality variable by linking it to differentiated achievement motivation constructs, namely achievement motives (workmastery, competitiveness, fear of failure) and achievement goals (mastery-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-approach, performance-avoidance). Study 1 revealed that IM was a positive predictor of workmastery and a negative predictor of competitiveness (with and without self-deceptive enhancement (SDE) controlled). Studies 2a and 2b revealed that IM was a positive predictor of mastery-approach goals and mastery-avoidance goals (without and, in Study 2b, with SDE controlled). These findings highlight the value of conceptualising and utilising IM as a personality variable in its own right and shed light on the nature of the achievement motive and achievement goal constructs.

Concepts: Cultural studies, Motivation, Regulatory Focus Theory, Goal, Motive, Impression management, Vivica A. Fox, Need for achievement


Internationally, up to 15.1% of intensive Internet use among adolescents is dysfunctional. To provide a basis for early intervention and preventive measures, understanding the motives behind intensive Internet use is important.

Concepts: World Wide Web, Internet, History of the Internet, Motive, Freedom of information, Vivica A. Fox