SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Vitis riparia

0

Resveratrol is the most important stilbene phytoalexin synthesized naturally or induced in plants, as a part of their defense mechanism. Grapes and their derivative products, including juice and wine, are the most important natural sources of resveratrol, consisting of notably higher amounts than other natural sources like peanuts. Consumption of red wine with its presence of resveratrol explained the “French Paradox”. Hence, the demand of resveratrol from grapes is increasing. Moreover, as a natural source of resveratrol, grapes became very important in the nutraceutical industry for their benefits to human health. The accumulation of resveratrol in grape skin, juice, and wine has been found to be induced by the external stimuli: microbial infection, ultrasonication (US) treatment, light-emitting diode (LED), ultra violet (UV) irradiation, elicitors or signaling compounds, macronutrients, and fungicides. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase, cinnamate-4-hydroxylase, coumaroyl-CoA ligase, and stilbene synthase play a key role in the synthesis of resveratrol. The up-regulation of those genes have the positive relationship with the elicited accumulation of resveratrol. In this review, we encapsulate the effect of different external stimuli (biotic and abiotic stresses or signaling compounds) in order to obtain the maximum accumulation of resveratrol in grape skin, leaves, juice, wine, and cell cultures.

Concepts: Light-emitting diode, Vitis vinifera, Resveratrol, Wine, Grape, Vitis riparia, Muscadine

0

Monastrell is a red grape cultivar adapted to the dry environmental conditions of Murcia (S.E. Spain). Their berries seem characterized by rigid cell wall structure, which could make difficult the winemaking process. Cabernet Sauvignon cultivar is used to complement Monastrell wines in our region, due to its high phenolic content with high extractability. Our study explores the skin cell wall composition of grapes from plants resulting from intraspecific crosses of Vitis vinifera cultivars Monastrell × Cabernet Sauvignon. Moreover, the morphology of the cell wall material (CWM) from some representative samples was visualized by transmission optical microscopy.

Concepts: Cell wall, Vitis vinifera, Wine, Grape, Vitis, Vitaceae, Vitis riparia, Grape varieties

0

The color stability of red wines produced from interspecific hybrid grapes, which is partially dependent on anthocyanin diglucosides, is not well understood. In this study, the rate of decrease of monomeric anthocyanins as they polymerized to polymeric pigments due to the presence of excess catechin and acetaldehyde was measured in model wine using HPLC. Colorimetry was used to measure L*, a*, and b* values, hue angle, and change in color (∆E). Concentrations of individual diglucosides decreased more slowly than monoglucosides. When monoglucosides and diglucosides were combined, the reaction rate of monoglucosides was slower than that of monoglucosides alone. Hue angles described transitions from red to red-orange, orange, or orange-yellow as anthocyanin-specific changes occurred. The evolution in color represents dynamic reactions between anthocyanins, catechin, and acetaldehyde. Consequently, wines containing high concentrations of diglucosides, such as those produced from interspecific hybrid grapes, will form less polymeric pigment than wines containing primarily monoglucosides.

Concepts: Measurement, Polymer, Color, Wine, Hue, Reaction rate, Grape, Vitis riparia

0

Grape Phylloxera, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae, is a gall-forming insect that feeds on the leaves and roots of many Vitis species. The roots of the cultivated V. vinifera cultivars and hybrids are highly susceptible to grape phylloxera feeding damage. The native range of this insect covers most of North America, and it is particularly abundant in the eastern and central United States. Phylloxera was introduced from North America to almost all grape-growing regions across five of the temperate zone continents. It devastated vineyards in each of these regions causing large-scale disruptions to grape growers, wine makers and national economies. In order to understand the population diversity of grape phylloxera in its native range, more than 500 samples from 19 States and 34 samples from the introduced range (northern California, Europe and South America) were genotyped with 32 simple sequence repeat markers. STRUCTURE, a model based clustering method identified five populations within these samples. The five populations were confirmed by a neighbor-joining tree and principal coordinate analysis (PCoA). These populations were distinguished by their Vitis species hosts and their geographic locations. Samples collected from California, Europe and South America traced back to phylloxera sampled in the northeastern United States on V. riparia, with some influence from phylloxera collected along the Atlantic Coast and Central Plains on V. vulpina. Reproductive statistics conclusively confirmed that sexual reproduction is common in the native range and is combined with cyclical parthenogenesis. Native grape phylloxera populations were identified to be under Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The identification of admixed samples between many of these populations indicates that shared environments facilitate sexual reproduction between different host associated populations to create new genotypes of phylloxera. This study also found that assortative mating might occur across the sympatric range of the V. vulpina west and V. cinerea populations.

Concepts: United States, Vitis vinifera, Wine, North America, Vitis, Viticulture, Vitis riparia, Phylloxera

0

Chemometric analysis are used for food authenticity evaluation, correlating botanical and geographical origins with food chemical composition. This research was carried out in order to prove that it is possible linked red wines to Nero d'Avola and Syrah cultivars of Vitis vinifera according to their mineral content, while the values of the physical and chemical parameters do not affect relevantly this discrimination. The levels of mineral elements were determined by ICP-OES and ICP-MS. Samples from cv Nero d'Avola had the highest content of Zn, Cr, Ni, As and Cd, whereas the highest mineral concentration in cv Syrah samples was represented by K, Mg, Cu, and Sb. The research highlights that it is possible linked red wines to Nero d'Avola and Syrah cultivars of V. vinifera according to their mineral contents, adding knowledge to the determination studies of the wine botanical origin.

Concepts: Dietary mineral, Vitis vinifera, Wine, Grape, Vitis, Vitis riparia, Cabernet Sauvignon, Phylloxera

0

Seedlessness in grape (Vitis vinifera) is of considerable commercial importance for both the table grape and processing industries. Studies to date of grape seed development have been made certain progress, but many key genes have yet to be identified and characterized.

Concepts: Gene expression, Vitis vinifera, Grape, Vitis, Vitaceae, Viticulture, Vitis riparia, Grape varieties

0

Grape phylloxera, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Fitch) (Hemiptera, Phylloxeridae), is a very destructive insect pest of grapevines. Intercropping of Achyranthes bidentata Blume (f. Amaranthaceae) and Vitis spp. grapevines can be useful to control this pest. In the present study, the toxicity of 22 compounds, known to be present in A. bidentata, to grape phylloxera was evaluated. All treatments were toxic towards grape phylloxera but the degree of toxicity differed between treatments. Among the 22 tested compounds, several of which proved toxic towards grape phylloxera. However β-ecdysterone had higher toxic effects against grape phylloxera, with LC50 values of 175.73 mg a.i. liter-1. In addition, we assessed the sublethal effects of LC10, LC20 and LC40 of β-ecdysterone on grape phylloxera. The fourth instar and adult developmental periods and total life span were significantly prolonged by LC40 of β-ecdysterone. Fecundity decreased when grape phylloxera were exposed to LC20 and LC40 of β-ecdysterone. In addition, LC40 of β-ecdysterone decreased the intrinsic rate of increase (rm) and the finite rate of increase (λ) and prolonged the population doubling time (DT). The net reproductive rate (R0) was significantly reduced by both the LC20 and LC40 β-ecdysterone treatments. Our results demonstrated that β-ecdysterone had higher toxic effects and significant sublethal effects on grape phylloxera, and showed potential control of grape phylloxera.

Concepts: Vitis vinifera, Wine, Vitis, Viticulture, Vitis riparia, Aphid, Phylloxera, Vitis berlandieri

0

Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited bacterium in plant hosts and causes Pierce’s disease (PD) of grapevines, which differ in susceptibility according to the Vitis species (spp.). In this work we compared X. fastidiosa biofilm formation and population dynamics when cultured in xylem saps from PD-susceptible and -resistant Vitis spp. under different conditions. Behaviors in a closed-culture system were compared to those in different sap-renewal cultures that would more closely mimic the physicochemical environment encountered in planta. Significant differences in biofilm formation and growth in saps from PD-susceptible and -resistant spp. were only observed using sap renewal culture. Compared to saps from susceptible V. vinifera, those from PD-resistant V. aestivalis supported lower titers of X. fastidiosa and less biofilm and V. champinii suppressed both growth and biofilm formation, behaviors which are correlated with disease susceptibility. Furthermore, in microfluidic chambers X. fastidiosa formed thick mature biofilm with three-dimensional (3-D) structures, such as pillars and mounds, in saps from all susceptible spp. In contrast, only small aggregates of various shapes were formed in saps from four out of five of the resistant spp.; sap from the resistant spp. V. mustangensis was an exception in that it also supported thick lawns of biofilm but not the above described 3-D structures typically seen in a mature biofilm from the susceptible saps. Our findings provide not only critical technical information for future bioassays, but also suggest further understanding of PD susceptibility.

Concepts: Culture, Vitis vinifera, Grape, Vitis, Vitaceae, Vitis riparia, Muscadine, Vitis aestivalis

0

Passerina del Frusinate is an autochthonous wine grape variety, which grows in the Lazio region that is currently being evaluated by local wine producers. In this study, colour properties (CIELab coordinates), bioactive compounds (total polyphenols and flavan-3-ols), HPLC-DAD phenolic acid profiles and in vitro biological activity of monovarietal Passerina del Frusinate white wines and the effect of different maceration times (0, 18 and 24 h) were evaluated based on these parameters. Results highlighted statistically significant differences for almost all analysed parameters due to a strong influence of the pre-fermentative skin contact time. The flavan content of macerated wines was six times higher than that of the control, while total polyphenols were 1.5 times higher. According to their phytochemical content, macerated wines showed the highest antiradical capacity tested by means of DPPH(•) and ABTS(+•) assays. Besides, prolonged maceration resulted in a reduction of CIELab coordinates as well as of the content of phenolic substances and antiradical capacity. Among the phenolic acids analysed, the most abundant were vanillic acid and caffeic acid; the latter proved to be the most susceptible to degradation as a result of prolonged maceration. Passerina del Frusinate appears as a phenol-rich white wine with a strong antioxidant potential similar to that of red wines.

Concepts: Vitis vinifera, Wine, Phenols, Polyphenol, Fermentation, Grape, Vitis riparia, Winemaking

0

Obtain endophyte strains with effective resveratrol production from superior grapevine variety Cabernet Sauvignon in Xinjiang and determine related taxonomic position of the strain.

Concepts: Vitis vinifera, Wine, Grape, Vitis, Vitis riparia, Cabernet Sauvignon, Grape varieties, Muscadine