SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Vitis riparia

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Postharvest techniques are widely used for the handling and storage of fresh horticultural crops. Some of these crops are interesting for use with wine grapes to improve the quality of wine. In this review, we consider the postharvest techniques that are already commercially used in wine sector and others that may be significant in inducing or extracting the aroma from grapes to produce high-quality wines.

Concepts: Yeast, Vitis vinifera, Wine, Grape, Vitis, Viticulture, Vitis riparia, Vitis labrusca

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Study of key control points in ripening is essential to improve grape wine quality. Molecular basis of ripening is still far from being understood from the Pierce’s disease tolerant grapes predominantly grown in the Southeastern United States. To identify proteins expressed during Blanc Du Bois grape berry green and ripening stages, proteome analysis from five different stages revealed 1091, 1131, 1078, 1042 and 1066 proteins. Differential expression analysis revealed 551 common proteins across different stages of maturity that are involved in various biochemical and metabolic pathways. The proteins identified were associated with phenylpropanoids, isoquinoline alkaloids, fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids, and furanones. Our data provides the first step to understand the complex biochemical changes during ripening of Pierce’s disease tolerant American hybrid grapes that are popular for their aroma and flavor profile in the southeastern USA. Proteomics data is deposited to the ProteomeXchangePXD004157. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Concepts: Protein, Biochemistry, Fruit, Wine, Unsaturated fat, Grape, Viticulture, Vitis riparia

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Monitoring of potentially toxic elements in agricultural soil represents the first measure of caution regarding food safety, while research into element bioavailability should be a step forward in understanding the element transportation chain. This study was conducted in the grapevine growing area (“Oplenac Wine Route”) for investigating element bioavailability in the soil-grapevine system accompanied by an assessment of the ecological implications and human health risk. Single extraction procedures (CH3COOH, Na2EDTA, CaCl2, NH4NO3 and deionised H2O) and digestion were performed to estimate the bioavailability of 22 elements (Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sr, V and Zn) from the topsoil (0-30 cm) and subsoil (30-60 cm) to the grapevine parts (leaf, skin, pulp and seed) and wine. The extractants were effective comparing to the pseudo-total concentrations in following order Na2EDTA ˃ CH3COOH ˃ NH4NO3 ˃ CaCl2, H2O 2 h and 16 h. The most suitable extractants for assessing the bioavailability of the elements from the soil to the grapevine parts were CaCl2, NH4NO3 and Na2EDTA, but deionised H2O could be suitable, as well. The results showed that Ba was the most bioavailable element in the soil-grapevine system. Contamination factor implied a moderate contamination (1 < CF < 3) of the soil. The concentrations of Cr, Ni and Cd in the soil were above the maximum allowed concentrations. According to the biological accumulation coefficient (BAC), the grape seeds and grapevine leaves mostly accumulated Cu and Zn from the soil, respectively. Based on ratio factor (RF > 1), the influence of atmospheric deposition on the aerial grapevine parts (leaves and grape skin) was observed. Nevertheless, low adverse health risk effects (HI < 1 and R ≤ 1 × 10-6) were estimated for farmers and grape and wine consumers.

Concepts: Soil, Vitis vinifera, Wine, Grape, Vitis, Vitis riparia, Grape seed oil

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This study investigated the presence of Aspergillus species belonging to Aspergillus section Nigri on Vitis labrusca and its hybrid grapes grown in Brazil. The ability of the fungi isolates to produce ochratoxin A (OTA) and fumonisin B2 (FB2) as well as the presence of these mycotoxins in the grapes were also studied. Eighty-eight samples were collected from the main grape producing states in Brazil: Rio Grande do Sul (n=30), Pernambuco (n=21), São Paulo (n=21) and Paraná (n=16). The highest average contamination level by A. section Nigri occurred on the grapes from Pernambuco (66.3%). A total of 2042 A. section Nigri isolates was analyzed and clustered in three groups according to morphology characterization: A. section Nigri uniseriate (79.3%), A. niger “aggregate” (18.3%) and A. carbonarius (2.4%). In order to precisely identify the Aspergillus species, two hundred and forty-eight strains were subjected to DNA sequencing. Among the A. section Nigri uniseriate group, the following species were found: A. japonicus, A. uvarum, A. brunneoviolaceus, A. aculeatus and A. labruscus. Within the A. niger “aggregate”, the following species were found: A.niger sensu stricto, A. welwitschiae and A. vadensis. Regarding mycotoxin-production capacity, 3.2% of the total A. section Nigri isolates (2042) were positive for OTA production and from A. niger “aggregate” (373) tested, 42.1% were FB2 producers. However, none of the 88 grape samples were contaminated with these mycotoxins.

Concepts: Aspergillus, Grape, Vitis, Vitaceae, Vitis riparia, Mycotoxins, Rio Grande do Sul, Vitis labrusca

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Grapes are among the most widely consumed plants and are used as a folk medicine. Vitis species have been traditionally used as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and memory-enhancing agents, but, their biological activities of discarded grape leaves are not completely understood.

Concepts: Vitis vinifera, Fern, Grape, Vitis, Vitaceae, Viticulture, Vitis riparia, Muscadine

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Microvine plant model displays an unique reproductive organ behaviors and is suitable for grapevine fruit physiological studies: allow to undertake studies until 5 times more rapidly than the current situation with grapevines. Recently, vine-shoot aqueous extracts, which have an interesting phenolic and aroma composition, have been proposed as viticultural biostimulants, since their post-veraison foliar application to grapevines impacts on wine aroma profile. Using Microvines, the aim of this study was to determine the vine-shoot extract foliar application effect on twenty-one stages of grapes development. The application was carried out from BBCH 53 (inflorescences clearly visible) to BBCH 85 (softening of berries), to reveal stage-specific responses of the accumulation of glycosylated aroma precursors at BBCH 89 (berries ripe for harvest), phenological stage selected to study the treatment effect.

Concepts: Fruit, Vitis vinifera, Plant morphology, Grape, Vitis, Vitaceae, Viticulture, Vitis riparia

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Ultraviolet light type C (UV-C) was studied as a tool to increase enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defenses and phytochemical levels in ‘Isabel’ grapes (Vitis labrusca×Vitis vinifera L.). Grapes were exposed to 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, or 4.0kJm-2 UV-C and stored for 1, 3, or 5days post-treatment. One day after UV-C irradiation, the activities of grape antioxidant enzymes and thiols were increased, especially at 1.0 and 2.0kJm-2. These doses increased total phenolic content by almost 20%, while 0.5 and 4.0kJm-2 had no effects. Total monomeric anthocyanin content was increased by >35% by UV-C at 1.0kJm-2; however, anthocyanin profile was unchanged. Grape skin antioxidant capacity was also improved by UV-C irradiation. The 1.0kJm-2 UV-C was considered the hormetic dose. Postharvest UV-C had an elicitor effect on ‘Isabel’ grapes, positively impacting the antioxidant capacity and phytochemical content.

Concepts: Antioxidant, Vitis vinifera, Grape, Vitis, Viticulture, Vitis riparia, Anthocyanin

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A decade has passed since melatonin was first reported in grapes in 2006. During this time, melatonin has not only been found in the berries of most wine grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars, but also in most grape-related foodstuffs, e.g. wine, grape juice and grape vinegar. In this review, we discuss the melatonin content in grapes and grape-related foodstuffs (especially wine) from previous studies, the physiological function of melatonin in grapes, and the factors contributing to the production of melatonin in grapes and wines. In addition, we identify future research needed to clarify the mechanisms of grape melatonin biosynthesis and regulation, and establish more accurate analysis methods for melatonin in grapes and wines.

Concepts: Vitis vinifera, Wine, Grape, Vitis, Vitaceae, Viticulture, Vitis riparia, Berry

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Vitis vinifera is one of the most widespread grapevines around the world representing the raw material for high quality wine production. The availability of more resistant interspecific hybrid vine varieties, developed from crosses between Vitis vinifera and other Vitis species, has generated much interest, also due to the low environmental effect of production. However, hybrid grape wine composition and varietal differences between interspecific hybrids have not been well defined, particularly for the simple phenols profile. The dynamic of these phenols in wines, where the glycosylated forms can be transformed into the free ones during winemaking, also raises an increasing health interest by their role as antoxidants in wine consumers. In this work an on-line SPE clean-up device, to reduce matrix interference, was combined with ultra-high liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry in order to increase understanding of the phenolic composition of hybrid grape varieties. Specifically, the phenolic composition of 4 hybrid grape varieties (red, Cabernet Cantor and Prior; white, Muscaris and Solaris) and 2 European grape varieties (red, Merlot; white, Chardonnay) was investigated, focusing on free and glycosidically bound simple phenols and considering compound distribution in pulp, skin, seeds and wine. Using a targeted approach 53 free simple phenols and 7 glycosidic precursors were quantified with quantification limits ranging from 0.001 to 2mgKg(-1) and calibration R(2) of 0.99 for over 86% of compounds. The untargeted approach made it possible to tentatively identify 79 glycosylated precursors of selected free simple phenols in the form of -hexoside (N=30), -pentoside (21), -hexoside-hexoside (17), -hexoside-pentoside (4), -pentoside-hexoside (5) and -pentoside-pentoside (2) derivatives on the basis of accurate mass, isotopic pattern and MS/MS fragmentation.

Concepts: Mass spectrometry, Vitis vinifera, Wine, Grape, Vitis, Vitaceae, Viticulture, Vitis riparia

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Plants are colonized by diverse assemblages of fungal endophytes that have potential as biocontrol agents for a variety of crops, including grapevine. Although the diversity of symbionts can be very high in wild plants, the fungal endophytes of wild Vitis plants have not yet been investigated. We surveyed the fungal endophytes of six wild populations of Vitis riparia, as well as a cold tolerant, hybrid grapevine in five vineyards (one certified organic), using 454 pyrosequencing. We detected between 43 and 235 OTUs per sample, with the highest richness and diversity in the wild, the lowest in conventional vineyards, and intermediate levels in the organic vineyard. Wild plants supported a range of taxa not seen in the conventional vineyards, and vineyards were dominated by relatively few taxa. We also isolated fungi from the wild plants and tested them for their ability to inhibit pathogens of grapevine. Several wild isolates (e.g. Ramularia spp.) were strongly inhibitory to grapevine pathogens. We show that wild Vitis supports a distinct and highly diverse community of fungal endophytes, and may represent a rich repository of potential vineyard biocontrol agents.

Concepts: Bacteria, Plant, Fungus, Grape, Vitis, Viticulture, Vitis riparia, Endophyte