SciCombinator

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Concept: Vitis riparia

165

BACKGROUND: Resveratrol is an important stilbene that benefits human health. However, it is only distributed in a few species including grape and is very expensive. At present, grape has been an important source resveratrol. However, the details are scarce on resveratrol distribution in different Vitis species or cultivars. METHODOLOGYPRINCIPAL FINDING: The composition and content of resveratrols were investigated by HPLC for assessing genotypic variation in berry skins and leaves of 75 grape cultivars, belonging to 3 species and 7 interspecific hybrids. Trans-resveratrol, cis-piceid and trans-piceid were detected in berry skins and leaves, but cis-resveratrol was not. Resveratrol content largely varied with genetic background as well as usage. In most cultivars, total resveratrol including the above three compounds was higher in berry skins than leaves. In berry skins of most cultivars and leaves of almost all cultivars, cis-piceid was the most abundant resveratrol; trans-resveratrol and trans-piceid were minor components. Some specific cultivars were found with extremely high levels of trans-resveratrol, cis- piceid, trans-piceid or total resveratrols in berry skins or leaves. In skins and leaves, rootstock cultivars had a higher content of total resveratrols, and the cultivated European type cultivars and their hybrids with V. labrusca had relatively low totals. There were no significant correlations of the amounts of total resveratrols or any individual resveratrol between berry skins and leaves. All 75 cultivars can be divided into four groups based on the composition of resveratrols and their concentration by principal component analysis. CONCLUSION: Resveratrol content of grape berries and leaves varied largely with their genetic background and usage. Rootstock cultivars had a higher content of total resveratrols than the other germplasm. Total resveratrols were lower in leaves than berry skins in most cultivars. Cis-piceid was the most abundant resveratrol in most cultivars, and trans-res and trans-pd were minor components.

Concepts: Vitis vinifera, Resveratrol, Grape, Vitis, Vitaceae, Vitis riparia, Vitis labrusca, Muscadine

146

Endophytes proved to exert multiple effects on host plants, including growth promotion, stress resistance. However, whether endophytes have a role in metabolites shaping of grape has not been fully understood. Eight endophytic fungal strains which originally isolated from grapevines were re-inoculated to field-grown grapevines in this study, and their effects on both leaves and berries of grapevines at maturity stage were assessed, with special focused on secondary metabolites and antioxidant activities. High-density inoculation of all these endophytic fungal strains modified the physio-chemical status of grapevine to different degrees. Fungal inoculations promoted the content of reducing sugar (RS), total flavonoids (TF), total phenols (TPh), trans-resveratrol (Res) and activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), in both leaves and berries of grapevine. Inoculation of endophytic fungal strains, CXB-11 (Nigrospora sp.) and CXC-13 (Fusarium sp.) conferred greater promotion effects in grape metabolic re-shaping, compared to other used fungal strains. Additionally, inoculation of different strains of fungal endophytes led to establish different metabolites patterns of wine grape. The work implies the possibility of using endophytic fungi as fine-tuning regulator to shape the quality and character of wine grape.

Concepts: Fungus, Vitis vinifera, Grape, Vitis, Vitaceae, Vitis riparia, Endophyte, Muscadine

28

Abstract: In this study, ten clones of Vitis vinifera Cabernet franc (not yet commercial) have been phenotyped on precocity, grape composition and assessment of wine quality made by micro vinification in 2008, 2009 and 2010. Additionally, two original criteria have been considered: concentration of 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine in grapes and wines (the green bell pepper flavor) and resistance of grapevines to downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) by stilbene quantification upon infection. Precocity of veraison varied up to four days at veraison. Berry size and yield were highly variable among clones. However, these variables were not correlated. Tanins and anthocyanins varied among clones in grapes and wines. Variations in grape and wine IBMP were not significant. Some clones showed lower susceptibility for downy mildew on leaves. Lower susceptibility was linked to a higher production of stilbenic phytoalexins involved in downy mildew resistance mechanisms.

Concepts: Vitis vinifera, Wine, Grape, Vitis, Vitaceae, Viticulture, Vitis riparia, Cabernet Sauvignon

6

Grapes are one of the world’s most valuable crops and most are made into wine. Grapes belong to the genus Vitis, which includes over 60 inter-fertile species. The most common grape cultivars derive their entire ancestry from the species Vitis vinifera, but wild relatives have also been exploited to create hybrid cultivars, often with increased disease resistance.

Concepts: Vitis vinifera, Wine, Grape, Vitis, Vitaceae, Viticulture, Vitis riparia, Muscadine

4

The genus Vitis (the grapevine) is a group of highly diverse, diploid woody perennial vines consisting of approximately 60 species from across the northern hemisphere. It is the world’s most valuable horticultural crop with ~8 million hectares planted, most of which is processed into wine. To gain insights into the use of wild Vitis species during the past century of interspecific grape breeding and to provide a foundation for marker-assisted breeding programmes, we present a principal components analysis (PCA) based ancestry estimation method to calculate admixture proportions of hybrid grapes in the United States Department of Agriculture grape germplasm collection using genome-wide polymorphism data. We find that grape breeders have backcrossed to both the domesticated V. vinifera and wild Vitis species and that reasonably accurate genome-wide ancestry estimation can be performed on interspecific Vitis hybrids using a panel of fewer than 50 ancestry informative markers (AIMs). We compare measures of ancestry informativeness used in selecting SNP panels for two-way admixture estimation, and verify the accuracy of our method on simulated populations of admixed offspring. Our method of ancestry deconvolution provides a first step towards selection at the seed or seedling stage for desirable admixture profiles, which will facilitate marker-assisted breeding that aims to introgress traits from wild Vitis species while retaining the desirable characteristics of elite V. vinifera cultivars.

Concepts: Vitis vinifera, Grape, Vitis, Vitaceae, Viticulture, Vitis riparia, Vitis labrusca, Muscadine

2

The vascular system of grapevine has been reported as being highly vulnerable, even though grapevine regularly experiences seasonal drought. Stomata would consequently remain open below water potentials that would generate a high loss of stem hydraulic conductivity via xylem embolism. This situation would necessitate daily cycles of embolism repair to restore hydraulic function.. However, a more parsimonious explanation is that some hydraulic techniques are prone to artifacts in species with long vessels, leading to overestimation of vulnerability. The aim of this study was to provide an unbiased assessment of (i) the vulnerability to drought-induced embolism in perennial and annual organs, and (ii) the ability to refill embolized vessels in two Vitis species. X-ray micro-CT observations on intact plants indicated that both V. vinifera and V. riparia were relatively vulnerable, with the pressure inducing 50% loss of stem hydraulic conductivity (Ψ50Stem) = -1.7 and -1.3MPa, respectively. In V. vinifera, both the stem and petiole had similar sigmoidal vulnerability curves, but differed in Ψ50 (-1.7 and -1.0MPa for stem and petiole, respectively). Refilling was not observed as long as bulk xylem pressure remained negative (e.g. at the apical part of the plants): P=-0.11{plus minus}0.02MPa; ∆PLC=0.02{plus minus}0.01%). However, positive xylem pressure was observed at the basal part of the plant (P=0.04{plus minus}0.01MPa), leading to recovered conductance (∆PLC=-0.24{plus minus}0.12%). Our findings provide evidence that grapevine is unable to repair embolized xylem vessels under negative pressure, but its hydraulic vulnerability segmentation provides a significant protection of the perennial stem.

Concepts: Philosophy of science, Annual plant, Grape, Vitis, Vitaceae, Vitis riparia, Perennial plant, Phylloxera

1

Stilbenoids are secondary plant metabolites responsible for the protection of multiple plant species including grape vine from bacterial and fungal infection. Red wine has been shown to be a major source of these compounds in the human diet, where they display an array of health benefits. Providing a more complete profile of the stilbenoids present in red wine, this study detects 41 stilbenoid compounds, 23 of which have never before been detected in red wine.

Concepts: Mass spectrometry, Eukaryote, Yeast, Vitis vinifera, Wine, Time-of-flight, Grape, Vitis riparia

0

Straw wine is an high-valuable oenological production, affected by relevant economical losses due to proliferation of spoilage microorganisms during drying grapes, after being harvested. In this work ozone was evaluated as tool to preserve grapes during drying, in terms of both qualitative and quantitative changes induced in the epiphytic microflora. In addition, the alteration exerted by ozone on grape’s chemical composition was analyzed.

Concepts: Qualitative research, Vitis vinifera, Wine, Grape, Viticulture, Vitis riparia, Annual growth cycle of grapevines

0

The impact of co-fermenting white grape pomace (WP) and red grape pomace (RP) on the composition of interspecific hybrid wine was studied using the Vitis sp. ‘Frontenac’ and ‘Vidal’. The proanthocyanidin and anthocyanin content of the resulting wines were analysed by HPLC-fluorescence and UPLC-MS/MS, respectively. The CIELAB parameters and volatile compounds were analysed using spectrophotometry-UV and GC-MS-SPME, respectively. The WP addition increased the concentration of monomeric and oligomeric flavan-3-ols, and terpenes in the wines. The manipulation of the WP/RP ratio efficiently modulated the anthocyanin profile of the wines, resulting in faded red colour, a desirable achievement in hybrid red wine, which is usually perceived as too dark. An appropriate ratio (30% RP/6% WP) improved the colour stability of the wines without a significant impact on wine colour. Addition of WP proved to be a suitable tool to modulate the colour, the phenolic and volatile composition of interspecific hybrid wine.

Concepts: Red, Vitis vinifera, Wine, Oenology, Grape, Vitis riparia, Burgundy

0

The copper contents in vineyard soil, grape must and wine and the relationship among them in the Huaizhuo Basin Region, China, were investigated. The results showed that the copper pollution status in vineyard soils, grapes and wines in the investigated area in China is under control, with only 4 surface soil (0-20cm) samples over maximum residue limits (MRL) and no grape or wine samples over MRL. Different vineyards, grape varieties, vine ages, and training systems all significantly influenced the copper contents in the vineyard soils, grape and wines. Additionally, the copper levels in the vineyard soils, grapes and wines all had some correlation. In wine samples, the copper contents ranged from 0.52 to 663μg/L, which is only approximately one percent the level found in grapes and one ten-thousandth that found in soils. Of the wine samples, red wines showed a significantly higher copper content than white wines, while in the red/white grape and soil samples, no significant differences were observed.

Concepts: Yeast, Vitis vinifera, Wine, Grape, Viticulture, Vitis riparia, Cabernet Sauvignon, Bordeaux