SciCombinator

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Concept: Vitis labrusca

165

BACKGROUND: Resveratrol is an important stilbene that benefits human health. However, it is only distributed in a few species including grape and is very expensive. At present, grape has been an important source resveratrol. However, the details are scarce on resveratrol distribution in different Vitis species or cultivars. METHODOLOGYPRINCIPAL FINDING: The composition and content of resveratrols were investigated by HPLC for assessing genotypic variation in berry skins and leaves of 75 grape cultivars, belonging to 3 species and 7 interspecific hybrids. Trans-resveratrol, cis-piceid and trans-piceid were detected in berry skins and leaves, but cis-resveratrol was not. Resveratrol content largely varied with genetic background as well as usage. In most cultivars, total resveratrol including the above three compounds was higher in berry skins than leaves. In berry skins of most cultivars and leaves of almost all cultivars, cis-piceid was the most abundant resveratrol; trans-resveratrol and trans-piceid were minor components. Some specific cultivars were found with extremely high levels of trans-resveratrol, cis- piceid, trans-piceid or total resveratrols in berry skins or leaves. In skins and leaves, rootstock cultivars had a higher content of total resveratrols, and the cultivated European type cultivars and their hybrids with V. labrusca had relatively low totals. There were no significant correlations of the amounts of total resveratrols or any individual resveratrol between berry skins and leaves. All 75 cultivars can be divided into four groups based on the composition of resveratrols and their concentration by principal component analysis. CONCLUSION: Resveratrol content of grape berries and leaves varied largely with their genetic background and usage. Rootstock cultivars had a higher content of total resveratrols than the other germplasm. Total resveratrols were lower in leaves than berry skins in most cultivars. Cis-piceid was the most abundant resveratrol in most cultivars, and trans-res and trans-pd were minor components.

Concepts: Vitis vinifera, Resveratrol, Grape, Vitis, Vitaceae, Vitis riparia, Vitis labrusca, Muscadine

27

The aim of this paper was to find possible link between molecular and morphological similarities of 38 Hungarian white grape varieties. Three aspects of morphological and molecular similarity were assessed in the study: comparison of the ordered variety pairs, assessment of molecular and morphological mean similarity differences and separation of varieties into similar groups by divisive cluster analysis to define (DIANA). Molecular similarity was calculated from binary data based on allele sizes obtained in DNA analysis. DNA fingerprints were determined at 9 SSR loci recommended by the European GrapeGen06 project. Morphological similarity was calculated on the basis of quantitative morphological descriptors. Morphological and molecular similarity values were ordered and categorized after pairwise comparison. Overall correlation was found to be weak but case by case assessment of the variety pairs confirmed some coincidence of molecular and morphological similarity. General similarity position of each variety was characterized by Mean Similarity Index (MSI). It was calculated as the mean of n-1 pair similarity values of the variety concerned. Varieties were ordered and compared by the difference of the index. Five varieties had low morphological and high molecular MSI meaning that they share several SSR marker alleles with the others but seems relatively distinct according to the expression of their morphological traits. Divisive cluster analysis was carried out to find similar groups. Eight and twelve cluster solutions proved to be sufficient to distinct varieties. Morphological and molecular similarity groups partly coincided according to the results. Several clusters reflected parent offspring relations but molecular clustering gave more realistic results concerning pedigree.

Concepts: DNA, Molecular biology, Difference, Vitis vinifera, Similarity, Vitis, Semantic similarity, Vitis labrusca

25

This study analyses the effect of the crude enzymatic extract produced by Kluyveromyces marxianus (EEB) in the maceration and clarification of juice produced from Ives (Vitis labrusca) grapes compared to the commercial enzyme preparation Pectinex(®)Ultra Color (PEC). Treatments were conducted with a total pectinolytic activity of 1 U/mL of fruit juice, at 40 °C, for 60 min. After the enzymatic treatment, the juices were evaluated with respect to yield, viscosity, and degree of clarification, as well as the effect of the enzymes on polyphenol concentration, anthocyanins, and juice color. The results showed that both EEB and PEC increase yield, reduce viscosity and contribute to the clarification of grape juice. After enzyme treatment with the EEB preparation, the extraction yield increased 28.02 % and decreased 50.70 % in viscosity during the maceration of the pulp. During the juice production process clarification increased 11.91 %. With PEC, higher values for these parameters: 42.36, 63.20, and 26.81 % respectively, were achieved. The addition of EEB resulted in grape juice with better color intensity and extraction of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins. Considering all comparison criteria, the enzymatic extract of K. marxianus NRRL-Y-7571 can potentially be used in the production of juice.

Concepts: Enzyme, Grape, Vitis, Vitaceae, Juice, Anthocyanin, Vitis labrusca, Maceration

4

The genus Vitis (the grapevine) is a group of highly diverse, diploid woody perennial vines consisting of approximately 60 species from across the northern hemisphere. It is the world’s most valuable horticultural crop with ~8 million hectares planted, most of which is processed into wine. To gain insights into the use of wild Vitis species during the past century of interspecific grape breeding and to provide a foundation for marker-assisted breeding programmes, we present a principal components analysis (PCA) based ancestry estimation method to calculate admixture proportions of hybrid grapes in the United States Department of Agriculture grape germplasm collection using genome-wide polymorphism data. We find that grape breeders have backcrossed to both the domesticated V. vinifera and wild Vitis species and that reasonably accurate genome-wide ancestry estimation can be performed on interspecific Vitis hybrids using a panel of fewer than 50 ancestry informative markers (AIMs). We compare measures of ancestry informativeness used in selecting SNP panels for two-way admixture estimation, and verify the accuracy of our method on simulated populations of admixed offspring. Our method of ancestry deconvolution provides a first step towards selection at the seed or seedling stage for desirable admixture profiles, which will facilitate marker-assisted breeding that aims to introgress traits from wild Vitis species while retaining the desirable characteristics of elite V. vinifera cultivars.

Concepts: Vitis vinifera, Grape, Vitis, Vitaceae, Viticulture, Vitis riparia, Vitis labrusca, Muscadine

2

Grapevine leafroll disease (GLD) is caused by a complex of vector-borne virus species in the family Closteroviridae. GLD is present in all grape-growing regions of the world, primarily affecting wine grape varieties. The disease has emerged in the last two decades as one of the major factors affecting grape fruit quality, leading to research efforts aimed at reducing its economic impact. Most research has focused on the pathogens themselves, such as improved detection protocols, with limited work directed toward disease ecology and the development of management practices. Here we discuss the ecology and management of GLD, focusing primarily on Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3, the most important virus species within the complex. We contextualize research done on this system within an ecological framework that forms the backbone of the discussion regarding current and potential GLD management strategies. To reach this goal, we introduce various aspects of GLD biology and ecology, followed by disease management case studies from four different countries and continents (South Africa, New Zealand, California-USA, and France). We review ongoing regional efforts that serve as models for improved strategies to control this economically important and worldwide disease, highlighting scientific gaps that must be filled for the development of knowledge-based sustainable GLD management practices.

Concepts: Fruit, Vitis vinifera, Wine, Grape, Vitis, Vitaceae, Viticulture, Vitis labrusca

1

The fact that it is possible to induce stilbenoid accumulation in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) by UV-C light opens up the interesting possibility to stimulate grapevine phytoalexin production to increase disease resistance and immunity, and subsequently to limit the use of pesticides in vineyards. UV-C light was applied daily during three days before harvest in table grape variety Crimson seedless to study its stilbenoid compound accumulation during ripeness. E-Resveratrol concentration was monitored during daily preharvest UV-C application and compared with single application. Daily periodic preharvest UV-C light treatment showed an accumulative effect on grape stilbenoids. 86-Fold stilbenoid increase (sum of E-resveratrol, E-piceatannol, ε-viniferin, E-piceid, isorhapontigenin, ω-viniferin, and Z-piceid) in grape was achieved. The effects of UV-C light on stilbenoid in grape cane was also addressed for the first time. Stilbenoid oligomers such as hopeaphenol, ampelopsin A and r-viniferin, were quantified in cane samples. Quality grape parameters indicated an acceleration of ripening in UV-C samples.

Concepts: Vitis vinifera, Wine, Grape, Vitis, Vitaceae, Viticulture, Grape varieties, Vitis labrusca

0

Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is one of the classical fruits of the Old World. Among the thousands of domesticated grapevine varieties and variable wild sylvestris populations, the range of variation in pip morphology is very wide. In this study we scanned representative samples of grape pip populations, in an attempt to probe the possibility of using the 3D tool for grape variety identification. The scanning was followed by mathematical and statistical analysis using innovative algorithms from the field of computer sciences. Using selected Fourier coefficients, a very clear separation was obtained between most of the varieties, with only very few overlaps. These results show that this method enables the separation between different Vitis vinifera varieties. Interestingly, when using the 3D approach to analyze couples of varieties, considered synonyms by the standard 22 SSR analysis approach, we found that the varieties in two of the considered synonym couples were clearly separated by the morphological analysis. This work, therefore, suggests a new systematic tool for high resolution variety discrimination.

Concepts: Vitis vinifera, Grape, Vitis, Vitaceae, Viticulture, Phylloxera, Grape varieties, Vitis labrusca

0

Very recently, we have produced new resveratrol derived compounds, especially labruscol by culture of elicited grapevine cell suspensions (Vitis labrusca L.). This new polyphenolic oligomer could function as cancer chemopreventive agent in similar manner of resveratrol. In this study, we have determined the efficiency of resveratrol, ε-viniferin and the labruscol on human melanoma cell with or without metastatic phenotype. Our results show a differential activity of the three compounds where the resveratrol remains the polyphenolic compound with the most effective action compared to other oligomers. These three compounds block cell cycle of melanoma cells in S phase by modulating key regulators of cell cycle i.e. cyclins A, E, D1 and their cyclin-dependent kinases 1 and 2. These effects are associated with an increase of cell death while these compounds have no cytotoxic action on normal human dermal fibroblasts.

Concepts: DNA, Chromosome, Chemotherapy, Cell cycle, Melanoma, Grape, Vitis, Vitis labrusca

0

Grape skins or their by-products from wine production are rich sources of anthocyanins and various colorless phenolics, depending on the grape variety. Phenolics have strong antioxidant and anthocyanin stabilizing properties and help to produce functional anthocyanin colorants with improved stability. This study aimed to assess differences in color expression and stability of anthocyanin colorants from red grape varieties naturally copigmented and with different levels of purity and to compare them to synthetic FD&C Red No. 3. Model juice systems were prepared at pH 3.5 with anthocyanins and phenolic copigments extracted from four Vitis vinifera grape varieties (‘Tempranillo’, ‘Syrah’, ‘C. Sauvignon’, and ‘Graciano’) both crude and purified by C18 solid phase extraction. Attention was focused on differential colorimetry and phenolic composition related to the color. Degradation kinetics of total color were also studied during storage of 17 days in darkness at 25 °C. Grape variety significantly influenced pigment yield, proportion of acylation, and proportion of copigments:pigments ratios in crude extracts; purification modulated the copigment:pigment ratios. This proportion was related to perceptible color variability among colorants and to different stabilities. With the same pigment content, grape varieties richer in skin copigments and higher copigment/pigment ratios (‘Syrah’ and ‘Tempranillo’) produced more intensely colored crude extracts whose tonalities ranged from reddish (‘Graciano’) to red-bluish (‘Syrah’), depending on the proportion of acylation. Increasing the purity of the pigments diminished the color variability due to variety, making them less vivid and visually more similar to one another and also to the synthetic colorant. Degradation kinetic studies showed that unpurified grape colorants had higher color stability over time, with the greatest stabilizing effects achieved with varieties richer in skin flavonols (‘Tempranillo’ and ‘Syrah’).

Concepts: Color, Vitis vinifera, Grape, Vitis, Cabernet Sauvignon, Anthocyanin, Grape varieties, Vitis labrusca

0

Postharvest techniques are widely used for the handling and storage of fresh horticultural crops. Some of these crops are interesting for use with wine grapes to improve the quality of wine. In this review, we consider the postharvest techniques that are already commercially used in wine sector and others that may be significant in inducing or extracting the aroma from grapes to produce high-quality wines.

Concepts: Yeast, Vitis vinifera, Wine, Grape, Vitis, Viticulture, Vitis riparia, Vitis labrusca