SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Vital signs

387

Prescription opioid-related overdose deaths increased sharply during 1999-2010 in the United States in parallel with increased opioid prescribing. CDC assessed changes in national-level and county-level opioid prescribing during 2006-2015.

Concepts: United States, Vital signs, Poverty in the United States, U.S. state, Medical prescription, Humid subtropical climate

195

The 2016 National Academies of Sciences report “Hearing Health Care for Adults: Priorities for Improving Access and Affordability” included a call to action for government agencies to strengthen efforts to collect, analyze, and disseminate population-based data on hearing loss in adults.

Concepts: Health care, United States, Vital signs, Hearing impairment, Tinnitus, Barack Obama, Massachusetts, 2016 Summer Olympics

195

A 46-year-old farmer presented to the emergency department 3 hours after his penis was bitten by a snake while he was urinating in an open field. Examination revealed stable vital signs, with a grossly swollen penis and formation of hemorrhagic bullae at the puncture sites.

Concepts: Vital signs, Medical signs, Squamata, Penis, Viperidae, Snake, Bite, Dublin

160

Aims: Rasagiline is a selective, irreversible monoamine oxidase type B inhibitor, developed for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. In compliance with current regulatory requirements, rasagiline underwent a thorough QT/QTc (TQT) study to assess its potential to prolong cardiac repolarization. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of clinical (1 mg/day) and supratherapeutic (2 mg/day and 6 mg/day) multiple oral doses of rasagiline on the baseline- and placebo-adjusted QTc interval (delta delta QTc (ddQTc)). Other electrocardiogram parameters, pharmacokinetic assessments, safety and tolerability as well as vital signs were investigated. Methods: This was a five-arm, randomized, double-blind, placebo- and active-controlled, and parallel study in healthy subjects. Moxifloxacin (400 mg) positive control was included to demonstrate assay sensitivity. Results: 247 of 250 randomized subjects completed the study. Time-matched analysis of ddQTc yielded two-sided 90% confidence intervals for all rasagiline doses below the 10 ms regulatory threshold, showing no effect on cardiac repolarization. Concentration-effect analysis demonstrated no relationships between rasagiline (and its metabolite 1-aminoindan), plasma concentrations, and ddQTc. The pharmacokinetic profile of rasagiline was consistent with previous studies. Adverse events were mild to moderate in intensity and were similar across all treatment groups. There were no clinically significant changes in heart rate and systolic blood pressure. Conclusion: This TQT study demonstrated a favorable cardiac safety profile of rasagiline.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Blood, Blood pressure, Vital signs, Parkinson's disease, Pulse, Neurotransmitter, Monoamine oxidase

148

104

Over 100 million Americans are living with chronic pain, and pain is the most common reason that patients seek medical attention. Despite the prevalence of pain, the practice of pain management and the scientific discipline of pain research are relatively new fields compared to the rest of medicine - contributing to a twenty-first century dilemma for health care providers asked to relieve suffering in the “Fifth Vital Sign” era.

Concepts: Health care, Health care provider, Medicine, Health, Illness, Vital signs, Pain, Suffering

103

Urine output (UO) is a vital sign for critical ill patients but standards for monitoring and reporting vary widely between ICUs. Careful monitoring of UO could lead to earlier recognition of acute kidney injury (AKI) and better fluid management. We sought to determine if intensity of UO monitoring is associated with outcomes in patients with and without AKI.

Concepts: Blood pressure, Vital signs, Acute kidney injury, Medical signs

60

Reliable, real-time heart and respiratory rates are key vital signs used in evaluating the physiological status in many clinical and non-clinical settings. Measuring these vital signs generally requires superficial attachment of physically or logistically obtrusive sensors to subjects that may result in skin irritation or adversely influence subject performance. Given the broad acceptance of ingestible electronics, we developed an approach that enables vital sign monitoring internally from the gastrointestinal tract. Here we report initial proof-of-concept large animal (porcine) experiments and a robust processing algorithm that demonstrates the feasibility of this approach. Implementing vital sign monitoring as a stand-alone technology or in conjunction with other ingestible devices has the capacity to significantly aid telemedicine, optimize performance monitoring of athletes, military service members, and first-responders, as well as provide a facile method for rapid clinical evaluation and triage.

Concepts: Physiology, Heart, The Canon of Medicine, Blood pressure, Avicenna, Vital signs, Medical signs, Biotelemetry

39

Nonadherence to taking prescribed antihypertensive medication (antihypertensive) regimens has been identified as a leading cause of poor blood pressure control among persons with hypertension and an important risk factor for adverse cardiovascular disease outcomes. CDC and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services analyzed geographic, racial-ethnic, and other disparities in nonadherence to antihypertensives among Medicare Part D beneficiaries in 2014.

Concepts: Medicare, Blood pressure, Vital signs, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, Health insurance in the United States, Medicare and Medicaid, Medicare Part D, Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act

33

More than 1 million heart failure hospitalizations occur annually, and congestion is the predominant cause. Rehospitalizations for recurrent congestion portend poor outcomes independently of age and renal function. Persistent congestion trumps serum creatinine increases in predicting adverse heart failure outcomes. No decongestive pharmacological therapy has reduced these harmful consequences. Simplified ultrafiltration devices permit fluid removal in lower-acuity hospital settings, but with conflicting results regarding safety and efficacy. Ultrafiltration performed at fixed rates after onset of therapy-induced increased serum creatinine was not superior to standard care and resulted in more complications. In contrast, compared with diuretic agents, some data suggest that adjustment of ultrafiltration rates to patients' vital signs and renal function may be associated with more effective decongestion and fewer heart failure events. Essential aspects of ultrafiltration remain poorly defined. Further research is urgently needed, given the burden of congestion and data suggesting sustained benefits of early and adjustable ultrafiltration.

Concepts: Hospital, Poverty, Blood pressure, Million, Renal physiology, Blood urea nitrogen, Creatinine, Vital signs