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Concept: Ventricle


To examine whether there is a difference in the association between high pulse pressure and proteinuria, independent of other blood pressure (BP) indices, such as systolic or diastolic BP, among subjects with diabetes, prediabetes, or normal glucose tolerance.

Concepts: Nutrition, Insulin, Cardiology, Blood pressure, Glucose tolerance test, The Association, Ventricle, Pulse pressure


To synthesise current evidence for the effects of exenatide and liraglutide on heart rate, blood pressure and body weight.

Concepts: Blood, Evidence-based medicine, Systematic review, Artery, Pulse, Vein, Ventricle, Meta-analysis


INTRODUCTION: Blunt cardiac rupture is an exceedingly rare injury. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of blunt cardiac trauma in a 43-year-old Caucasian German mother with pectus excavatum who presented after a car accident in which she had been sitting in the front seat holding her two-year-old boy in her arms. The mother was awake and alert during the initial two hours after the accident but then proceeded to hemodynamically collapse. The child did not sustain any severe injuries. Intraoperatively, a combined one-cm laceration of the left atrium and right ventricle was found. CONCLUSION: Patients with pectus excavatum have an increased risk for cardiac rupture after blunt chest trauma because of compression between the sternum and spine. Therefore, patients with pectus excavatum and blunt chest trauma should be admitted to a Level I Trauma Center with a high degree of suspicion.

Concepts: Heart, Pectus excavatum, Chest, Sternum, Ventricle, Left ventricle, Physical trauma, Chest trauma


Patients with chronic heart failure (HF) secondary to left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) are frequently deficient in vitamin D. Low vitamin D levels are associated with a worse prognosis.

Concepts: Vitamin D, Blood, Cardiology, Heart, Ventricle, Mitral valve, Left ventricle, Beriberi


Background Cardiac pacemakers are limited by device-related complications, notably infection and problems related to pacemaker leads. We studied a miniaturized, fully self-contained leadless pacemaker that is nonsurgically implanted in the right ventricle with the use of a catheter. Methods In this multicenter study, we implanted an active-fixation leadless cardiac pacemaker in patients who required permanent single-chamber ventricular pacing. The primary efficacy end point was both an acceptable pacing threshold (≤2.0 V at 0.4 msec) and an acceptable sensing amplitude (R wave ≥5.0 mV, or a value equal to or greater than the value at implantation) through 6 months. The primary safety end point was freedom from device-related serious adverse events through 6 months. In this ongoing study, the prespecified analysis of the primary end points was performed on data from the first 300 patients who completed 6 months of follow-up (primary cohort). The rates of the efficacy end point and safety end point were compared with performance goals (based on historical data) of 85% and 86%, respectively. Additional outcomes were assessed in all 526 patients who were enrolled as of June 2015 (the total cohort). Results The leadless pacemaker was successfully implanted in 504 of the 526 patients in the total cohort (95.8%). The intention-to-treat primary efficacy end point was met in 270 of the 300 patients in the primary cohort (90.0%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 86.0 to 93.2, P=0.007), and the primary safety end point was met in 280 of the 300 patients (93.3%; 95% CI, 89.9 to 95.9; P<0.001). At 6 months, device-related serious adverse events were observed in 6.7% of the patients; events included device dislodgement with percutaneous retrieval (in 1.7%), cardiac perforation (in 1.3%), and pacing-threshold elevation requiring percutaneous retrieval and device replacement (in 1.3%). Conclusions The leadless cardiac pacemaker met prespecified pacing and sensing requirements in the large majority of patients. Device-related serious adverse events occurred in approximately 1 in 15 patients. (Funded by St. Jude Medical; LEADLESS II number, NCT02030418 .).

Concepts: Clinical trial, Heart, Right ventricle, Ventricle, Left ventricle, Cardiac pacemaker, Artificial pacemaker, Transcutaneous pacing


The diagnosis of heart failure may be challenging because symptoms are rather nonspecific. Elevated left ventricular (LV) filling pressure may be used to confirm the diagnosis, but cardiac catheterization is often not practical. Echocardiographic indexes are therefore used as markers of filling pressure.

Concepts: Blood, Cardiology, Heart, Right ventricle, Ventricle, Aorta, Mitral valve, Left ventricle


OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of yoga on atrial fibrillation (AF) burden, quality of life (QoL), depression, and anxiety scores. BACKGROUND: Yoga is known to have significant benefit on cardiovascular health. The effect of yoga in reducing AF burden is unknown. METHODS: This single-center, pre-post study enrolled patients with symptomatic paroxysmal AF with an initial 3-month noninterventional observation period followed by twice-weekly 60-min yoga training for next 3 months. AF episodes during the control and study periods as well as SF-36, Zung self-rated anxiety, and Zung self-rated depression scores at baseline, before, and after the study phase were assessed. RESULTS: Yoga training reduced symptomatic AF episodes (3.8 ± 3 vs. 2.1 ± 2.6, p < 0.001), symptomatic non-AF episodes (2.9 ± 3.4 vs. 1.4 ± 2.0; p < 0.001), asymptomatic AF episodes (0.12 ± 0.44 vs. 0.04 ± 0.20; p < 0.001), and depression and anxiety (p < 0.001), and improved the QoL parameters of physical functioning, general health, vitality, social functioning, and mental health domains on SF-36 (p = 0.017, p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p = 0.019, and p < 0.001, respectively). There was significant decrease in heart rate, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure before and after yoga (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with paroxysmal AF, yoga improves symptoms, arrhythmia burden, heart rate, blood pressure, anxiety and depression scores, and several domains of QoL. (Yoga on Arrythmia Burden and Quality of Life in Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation; NCT00798356).

Concepts: Blood, Heart, Stroke, Atrial fibrillation, Blood pressure, Ventricle, Cardiac cycle, Systole


This explorative, longitudinal study evaluated the effect of the daily use of a mobile phone-based self-management support system for hypertension in reducing blood pressure (BP) among 50 primary care patients with hypertension over 8 weeks. The self-management system comprises modules for (1) self-reports of BP, pulse, lifestyle, symptoms, and well-being; (2) delivery of reminders and encouragements; and (3) graphical feedback of self-reports. Daily use of the support system significantly reduced BP (systolic BP -7 mm Hg, diastolic BP -4.9 mm Hg) between baseline and week 8, with daily improvements leveling off as the study progressed. Three homogenous subsets of patients were identified who, despite different initial BP levels, showed similar decreases in BP during the study, indicating that patients benefited irrespective of baseline BP. In showing significant reductions in BP, our results suggest that the self-management support system may be a useful tool in clinical practice to help patients self-manage their hypertension.

Concepts: Longitudinal study, Clinical trial, Improve, Hypertension, Blood pressure, Ventricle, Orthostatic hypotension, Mobile phone


Background Heat therapy has been suggested to improve cardiovascular function. However, the effects of hot sauna exposure on arterial compliance and the dynamics of blood flow and pressure have not been well documented. Thus, we investigated the short-term effects of sauna bathing on arterial stiffness and haemodynamics. Design The design was an experimental non-randomised study. Methods There were 102 asymptomatic participants (mean age, 51.9 years) who had at least one cardiovascular risk factor. Participants were exposed to a single sauna session (duration: 30 min; temperature: 73℃; humidity: 10-20%). Pulse wave velocity, augmentation index, heart rate, blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, pulse pressure, augmented pressure and left ventricular ejection time were assessed before, immediately after, and 30 min after a single sauna session. Results Sauna bathing led to reductions in pulse wave velocity, blood pressure, mean arterial pressure and left ventricular ejection time. Mean pulse wave velocity value before sauna was 9.8 m/s and decreased to 8.6 m/s immediately after sauna bathing ( p < 0.001 for difference), and was 9.0 m/s after the 30-minute recovery period ( p < 0.001 for analysis of variance). Systolic blood pressure was 137 mm Hg before sauna bathing, decreasing to 130 mm Hg after sauna ( p < 0.001), which remained sustained during the 30-minute recovery phase ( p < 0.001 for analysis of variance). After a single sauna session, diastolic blood pressure decreased from 82 to 75 mm Hg, mean arterial pressure from 99.4 to 93.6 mm Hg and left ventricular ejection time from 307 to 278 m/s ( p < 0.001 for all differences). Pulse pressure was 42.7 mm Hg before the sauna, 44.9 mm Hg immediately after the sauna, and reduced to 39.3 mm Hg after 30-minutes recovery ( p < 0.001 for analysis of variance). Heart rate increased from 65 to 81 beats/min post-sauna ( p < 0.001); there were no significant changes for augmented pressure and pulse pressure amplification. Conclusion This study shows that pulse wave velocity, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, left ventricular ejection time and diastolic time decreased immediately after a 30-minute sauna session. Decreases in systolic blood pressure and left ventricular ejection time were sustained during the 30-minute recovery phase.

Concepts: Blood, Myocardial infarction, Hypertension, Blood pressure, Artery, Ventricle, Pulse pressure, Mean arterial pressure


Interstitial fibrosis plays a key role in the development and progression of heart failure. Here, we show that an enzyme that crosslinks collagen-Lysyl oxidase-like 2 (Loxl2)-is essential for interstitial fibrosis and mechanical dysfunction of pathologically stressed hearts. In mice, cardiac stress activates fibroblasts to express and secrete Loxl2 into the interstitium, triggering fibrosis, systolic and diastolic dysfunction of stressed hearts. Antibody-mediated inhibition or genetic disruption of Loxl2 greatly reduces stress-induced cardiac fibrosis and chamber dilatation, improving systolic and diastolic functions. Loxl2 stimulates cardiac fibroblasts through PI3K/AKT to produce TGF-β2, promoting fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transformation; Loxl2 also acts downstream of TGF-β2 to stimulate myofibroblast migration. In diseased human hearts, LOXL2 is upregulated in cardiac interstitium; its levels correlate with collagen crosslinking and cardiac dysfunction. LOXL2 is also elevated in the serum of heart failure (HF) patients, correlating with other HF biomarkers, suggesting a conserved LOXL2-mediated mechanism of human HF.

Concepts: Physiology, Cardiology, Heart, Blood pressure, Interstitial fluid, Ventricle, Mitral valve, Cardiac cycle