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Concept: Veins of the torso


Central vein cannulation is one of the most commonly performed procedures in intensive care. Traditionally, the jugular and subclavian vein are recommended as the first choice option. Nevertheless, these attempts are not always obtainable for critically ill patients. For this reason, the axillary vein seems to be a rational alternative approach. In this narrative review, we evaluate the usefulness of the infraclavicular access to the axillary vein. The existing evidence suggests that infraclavicular approach to the axillary vein is a reliable method of central vein catheterization, especially when performed with ultrasound guidance.

Concepts: Critical thinking, Internal jugular vein, Veins of the torso, Axillary artery, Subclavian artery, Central venous catheter, Subclavian vein, Axillary vein


Subjects with persistent left superior vena cava were classified on the basis of the presence and thickness of both superior venae cavae, the anastomotic ramus between the superior venae cavae (anastomotic ramus), and the presence of both azygos veins. Among subjects with persistent left superior vena cava, the percentage of those with weak development of the anastomotic ramus (41.5 %) or absence of an anastomotic ramus (35.8 %) was 77.3 %. In addition, 54.7 % of subjects had a left azygos vein. However, 88.7 % of subjects had a right azygos vein. In this classification, the most frequently observed types included the presence of both superior venae cavae, an anastomotic ramus, and both azygos veins (20.8 %). During student dissection practice sessions performed on 337 cadavers that were carried out from 2002 through 2010, a subject having a left superior vena cava (in 2002) and a subject having both superior venae cavae (in 2003) were detected. The former case was reported previously. The latter case is reported in this paper. The incidence of persistent left superior vena cava was 0.59 % (2/337 cadavers).

Concepts: Persistent left superior vena cava, Veins of the torso, Azygos vein, Vein, Superior vena cava, Inferior vena cava


A 45-year-old man presented with fever and jaundice. A CT scan showed acute perforated sigmoid diverticulitis; in addition, there was gas in the inferior mesenteric vein extending to the splenic vein up to the origin of the portal vein, a finding consistent with pylephlebitis.

Concepts: Diverticulitis, Vein, Colon, Veins of the torso, Portal venous system, Inferior mesenteric vein, Hepatic portal vein, Splenic vein


The superior right colic vein (SRCV) has been proposed as the main cause of superior mesenteric vein bleeding by avulsion during laparoscopic right hemicolectomy. Our objective is to identify the main vessel causing transverse mesocolic tension during the extraction of the surgical specimen or extracorporeal anastomosis and to perform an anatomical description of the SRCV.

Concepts: Causality, Veins of the torso, Hepatic portal vein, Surgery, Right colic artery, Superior mesenteric vein, Right colic vein, Superior mesenteric artery


A 29-year-old woman who worked as a KAATSU (a type of body exercise that involves blood flow restriction) instructor visited our emergency room with a chief complaint of swelling and left upper limb pain. Chest computed tomography (CT) showed non-uniform contrast images corresponding to the site from the left axillary vein to the left subclavian vein; vascular ultrasonography of the upper limb revealed a thrombotic obstruction at the same site, leading to a diagnosis of Paget-Schroetter syndrome (PSS). We herein report our experience with a case of PSS derived from thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS), in a patient who was a KAATSU instructor.

Concepts: Veins of the torso, First rib, Scalene muscles, Medical imaging, Axillary artery, Axillary vein, Subclavian artery, Subclavian vein


To study the anatomical features and classification of the angle between the right gastroepiploic vein (RGEV) and superior mesenteric vein/portal vein (SMV/PV) and to guide the catheterization of intraportal infusion chemotherapy through RGEV and reduce surgical complications.

Concepts: Veins of the torso, Medicine, Physician, Vein, Portal venous system, Hepatic portal vein


Isolated persistent left superior vena cava (SVC) in the absence of right SVC is a rare congenital variant of thoracic venous drainage with the left subclavian and jugular veins that drain into the right atrium through the coronary sinus. Inferior vena cava interruption with azygos continuation is another congenital anomaly resulting in venous drainage of the lower extremities via a typically dilated azygos vein. Although both variants are generally asymptomatic and incidentally detected, these can have clinical implications in specific circumstances and in particular during device implantation. We report a case of pacemaker implantation in which both anatomical variants were present.

Concepts: Small cardiac vein, Veins of the torso, Blood, Right atrium, Vein, Heart, Superior vena cava, Inferior vena cava


Laparoscopic radical colectomies have been more widely used gradually, among which laparoscopic extended right hemicolectomy is considered as the most difficult procedure. The difficulty of extended right hemicolectomy lies in the need to dissect lymph nodes along the superior mesenteric vein (SMV) and disconnect numerous and possible aberrant vessels. To address this problem, we emphasize two points in key vessel assessment: getting familiar with the anatomy along the medial-to-lateral approach and having a good understanding about the preoperative imaging presentations. An accurately preoperative imaging assessment by abdominal enhanced CT can help the surgeon understand the relative position of the key vessels to be dealt with during operation and the situation of the possible aberrant vessels so as to guide the procedure more effectively and facilitate the prevention and management of the intraoperative complications. During operation, the operator should pay special attention to the management of the vessels in the ileocolic vessel region, Henle’s trunk and middle colon vessels. The operation highlights of the key vessels are as follows: (1) The ileocolic vessels: identifying the Toldt’s gap correctly and opening the vascular sheath of the SMV securely; making sure that the duodenum is well protected. (2) Henle’s trunk: dissecting along the surface of the Henle’s trunk; preserving the anterior superior pancreaticoduodenal vein (ASPDV) and main trunk of the Henle’s trunk; disconnecting the roots of the right colic vein (RCV) and right gastroepiploic vein (RGEV), and then dissecting lymph nodes along the surface of the pancreas. (3) The middle colon vessels: identifying the root of the middle colon vessel along the lower edge of the pancreas; avoiding entering behind the pancreas; mobilizing the transverse mesocolon sufficiently along the surface of the pancreas. Finally, we discuss and analyze the disputes currently existing in laparoscopic extended right hemicolectomy, including dissection of No.6 lymph nodes, naking the SMA and dissecting lymph nodes around the roots of the branches of SMA. This article shares our experience about laparoscopic extended right hemicolectomy, hoping that it could help beginners master the technique more safely and skillfully.

Concepts: Superior mesenteric vein, Arteries of the abdomen, Dissection, Veins of the torso, Inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery, Right colic artery, Right colic vein, Superior mesenteric artery


Atrial fibrillation (AF) usually originates from pulmonary veins (PVs) but can also be caused by pulmonary veins outside, such as the coronary sinus (CS), the superior vena cava (SVC), and the ligament of Marshall.

Concepts: Atrial flutter, Sinus venosus, Veins of the torso, Superior vena cava, Vein, Inferior vena cava, Atrial fibrillation, Heart


During pediatric kidney transplant, surgical challenges occasionally occur. In particular, vascular anastomosis should be considered for children with small body weight < 12 kg, multiple renal arteries, vascular anomaly, and inferior vena cava occlusion. In pediatric patients, a living-donor renal graft is usually donated from a parent. Therefore, the renal artery and vein are too large to be anastomosed with the recipient's internal iliac artery and external iliac vein. In children who are > 12 kg, the renal artery and vein could be anastomosed with the external iliac artery and the external iliac vein. In children who are < 10 kg, the renal artery and vein should be anastomosed directly with the aorta and inferior vena cava. A pediatric transplant surgeon should consider arterial and venous anastomosis sites before transplant surgery. In small children with partial or total inferior vena cava occlusion, the venous anastomosis site should be evaluated. If the graft is placed on the left side, a venous graft must be used as a bridge between the renal vein and inferior vena cava. In 13 kidney transplants in children with inferior vena cava occlusion, 7 were on the left and 6 were on the right side. A patent segment of the inferior vena cava, the left original renal vein, an ascending lumbar vein, an azygos vein, the first graft renal vein, and a portal vein were used for venous anastomosis in 6, 2, 2, 1, 1 and 1 recipient, respectively. One child had graft loss due to renal vein thrombosis and one died of hemorrhage immediately posttransplant. Three had grafts with relatively long-term function, but these were lost due to chronic allograft nephropathy 100, 122, and 137 months posttransplant. However, the other 8 recipients have so far maintained graft function from 6 to 138 months since transplant.

Concepts: External iliac artery, Blood, Vein, Veins of the torso, Renal vein, Kidney, Organ transplant, Inferior vena cava