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Concept: Veins of the head and neck


Recent evidence has indicated an association between chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) and multiple sclerosis. Small internal jugular veins (IJVs) (with a cross-sectional area of less than 0.4 cm2) have been previously described as difficult to catheterize, and their presence may potentially affect cerebrospinal venous drainage. In this blinded extracranial color-Doppler study we had two principal aims: first, to assess prevalence of CCSVI among Serbian MS patients compared to healthy controls; and second, to assess prevalence of small IJVs (with a CSA <= 0.4 cm2) among MS patients and controls.

Concepts: Multiple sclerosis, Internal jugular vein, Jugular vein, Common facial vein, Area, Sclerotherapy, Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency, Veins of the head and neck


Variations in intracranial dural venous sinus anatomy have been widely reported in humans, but there have been no studies reporting this in dogs. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe variations in magnetic resonance (MR) venographic anatomy of the dorsal dural venous sinus system in a sample population of dogs with structurally normal brains. Medical records were searched for dogs with complete phase contrast, intracranial MR venograms and a diagnosis of idiopathic epilepsy. Magnetic resonance venograms were retrieved for each dog and characteristics of the dorsal dural sinuses, symmetry of the transverse sinuses and other anatomic variations were recorded. A total of 51 dogs were included. Transverse sinus asymmetry was present in 58.8% of the dogs, with transverse sinus hypoplasia seen in 39.2%, and aplasia in 23.5% of dogs. For 70.6% of dogs, at least one anatomic variation in the dorsal sagittal sinus was observed, including deviation from the midline (33.3%) and collateral branches from either the dorsal sagittal sinus or dorsal cerebral veins (54.9%). In 5 dogs (9.8%) a vessel was also identified running from the proximal transverse sinus to the distal sigmoid sinus, in a similar location to the occipital sinus previously reported in children. Findings from this study indicated that, as in humans, anatomic variations are common in the intracranial dural venous sinus system of dogs. These anatomic variations should be taken into consideration for surgical planning or diagnosis of cerebrovascular disease.

Concepts: Dural venous sinuses, Veins of the head and neck, Transverse sinuses


Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients frequently suffer from headaches and fatigue, and many reports have linked headaches with intracranial and/or extracranial venous obstruction. We therefore designed a study involving MS patients diagnosed with obstructive disease of internal jugular veins (IJVs), with the aim of evaluating the impact of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) on headache and fatigue indicators.

Concepts: Multiple sclerosis, Angioplasty, Internal jugular vein, Jugular vein, Common facial vein, Veins of the head and neck



An 83-year-old man was evaluated for frequent palpitations. During an episode, examination of the neck revealed rapid and regular pulsations with bulging of the internal jugular veins, shown in a video. A 12-lead electrocardiogram showed a regular, narrow-complex tachycardia.

Concepts: Cardiology, Supraventricular tachycardia, Internal jugular vein, Jugular vein, Common facial vein, Neck, AV nodal reentrant tachycardia, Veins of the head and neck


The etiology of transient monocular blindness (TMB) in patients without carotid stenosis has been linked to ocular venous hypertension, for their increased retrobulbar vascular resistance, sustained retinal venule dilatation and higher frequency of jugular venous reflux (JVR). This study aimed to elucidate whether there are anatomical abnormalities at internal jugular vein (IJV) in TMB patients that would contribute to impaired cerebral venous drainage and consequent ocular venous hypertension.

Concepts: Common carotid artery, Internal jugular vein, Jugular vein, Common facial vein, Veins of the head and neck


Central venous catheter placement is a common procedure performed on critically ill patients. Routine postprocedure chest radiographs are considered standard practice. We hypothesize that the rate of clinically relevant complications detected on chest radiographs following ultrasound-guided right internal jugular vein catheterization is exceedingly low.

Concepts: Internal jugular vein, Jugular vein, Central venous catheter, Catheter, Common facial vein, Catheters, Peripheral venous catheter, Veins of the head and neck


Ultrasound-guided internal jugular venous access increases the rate of successful cannulation and reduces the incidence of complications, compared with the landmark technique. Three transducer orientation approaches have been proposed for this procedure: short-axis (SAX), long-axis (LAX) and oblique-axis (OAX). Our goal was to assess and compare the performance of these approaches.

Concepts: Comparison, Internal jugular vein, Jugular vein, Comparisons, Common facial vein, Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency, Veins of the head and neck


Normally, chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) has been studied using echo-colour Doppler (ECD). Subjects are examined in the supine and sitting positions, in accordance with a static protocol without rotation of the head. A dynamic approach, to assess venous sizes with different degrees of head rotation, has only been performed to improve jugular venous catheterisation. These echographic studies have suggested that head rotation to the contralateral side increases the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the internal jugular veins (IJVs) in supine subjects. Our goal was to evaluate the behaviour of CSA of the IJVs during supine head rotation in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with CCSVI, compared to healthy controls (HCs).

Concepts: Multiple sclerosis, Medical ultrasonography, Internal jugular vein, Jugular vein, Cultural studies, Common facial vein, Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency, Veins of the head and neck


High prevalence of valve absence was found in the internal jugular vein (IJV) of healthy volunteers by means of M-mode high-resolution echo colour Doppler (ECD). However, the prevalence of valve in neurovascular disorders linked to chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) is still unknown.

Concepts: Vein, Internal jugular vein, Jugular vein, Common facial vein, Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency, Veins of the head and neck