SciCombinator

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Concept: Value added

792

What we eat greatly influences our personal health and the environment we all share. Recent analyses have highlighted the likely dual health and environmental benefits of reducing the fraction of animal-sourced foods in our diets. Here, we couple for the first time, to our knowledge, a region-specific global health model based on dietary and weight-related risk factors with emissions accounting and economic valuation modules to quantify the linked health and environmental consequences of dietary changes. We find that the impacts of dietary changes toward less meat and more plant-based diets vary greatly among regions. The largest absolute environmental and health benefits result from diet shifts in developing countries whereas Western high-income and middle-income countries gain most in per capita terms. Transitioning toward more plant-based diets that are in line with standard dietary guidelines could reduce global mortality by 6-10% and food-related greenhouse gas emissions by 29-70% compared with a reference scenario in 2050. We find that the monetized value of the improvements in health would be comparable with, or exceed, the value of the environmental benefits although the exact valuation method used considerably affects the estimated amounts. Overall, we estimate the economic benefits of improving diets to be 1-31 trillion US dollars, which is equivalent to 0.4-13% of global gross domestic product (GDP) in 2050. However, significant changes in the global food system would be necessary for regional diets to match the dietary patterns studied here.

Concepts: Health care, Carbon dioxide, Nutrition, Value added, Climate change, Gross domestic product, Greenhouse gas, Attribution of recent climate change

254

Obesity, typically quantified in terms of Body Mass Index (BMI) exceeding threshold values, is considered a leading cause of premature death worldwide. For given body size (BMI), it is recognized that risk is also affected by body shape, particularly as a marker of abdominal fat deposits. Waist circumference (WC) is used as a risk indicator supplementary to BMI, but the high correlation of WC with BMI makes it hard to isolate the added value of WC.

Concepts: Death, Obesity, Overweight, Adipose tissue, Body mass index, Value added, Waist-hip ratio, Body shape

171

Current methods for estimating maternal mortality lack precision, and are not suitable for monitoring progress in the short run. In addition, national maternal mortality ratios (MMRs) alone do not provide useful information on where the greatest burden of mortality is located, who is concerned, what are the causes, and more importantly what sub-national variations occur. This paper discusses a maternal death surveillance and response (MDSR) system. MDSR systems are not yet established in most countries and have potential added value for policy making and accountability and can build on existing efforts to conduct maternal death reviews, verbal autopsies and confidential enquiries. Accountability at national and sub-national levels cannot rely on global, regional and national retrospective estimates periodically generated from academia or United Nations organizations but on routine counting, investigation, sub national data analysis, long term investments in vital registration and national health information systems. Establishing effective maternal death surveillance and response will help achieve MDG 5, improve quality of maternity care and eliminate maternal mortality (MMR <= 30 per 100,000 by 2030).

Concepts: Death, Demography, Value added, Maternal death, United Nations, Autopsy, Millennium Development Goals, Perinatal mortality

165

This paper presents an innovative access control system, based on human detection and path analysis, to reduce false automatic door system actions while increasing the added values for security applications. The proposed system can first identify a person from the scene, and track his trajectory to predict his intention for accessing the entrance, and finally activate the door accordingly. The experimental results show that the proposed system has the advantages of high precision, safety, reliability, and can be responsive to demands, while preserving the benefits of being low cost and high added value.

Concepts: Scientific method, Value added, Access control, Physical security, Door, Door security, Safe, Security companies

33

To the Editor: Clinical-skills assessments provide motivation and direction for learning.(1),(2) Adoption of simulation-based education methods has introduced a wide variety of options for clinical-performance assessment.(3),(4) To explore the potential value added by integrating sensor technology with a skills assessment, this study investigated whether sensor data could inform previously accepted observation-based performance recommendations for the clinical breast examination (CBE).(5) We hypothesized that sensor technology would help to characterize successful and unsuccessful CBE techniques at a level of detail that is not possible with observation alone. The study protocol was administered in 2013 and 2014 and required practicing physicians . . .

Concepts: Assessment, Value added, Educational psychology, Learning

28

Cumin is a seed spice belonging to the family umbelliferae. Cumin and value added products from cumin are used in food flavoring and perfumery. Cumin contains volatile oil (3-4%), cuminaldehyde, the major active principle, which is present to an extent of 45-50%. Cumin and value added products from cumin, viz., cumin oil and oleoresin are exported. Cumin powder forms the main component of many spice mixes and curry powders. Cuminaldehyde is an important phytochemical and possesses many health benefits. Alcohol and water extract of cumin are reported to possess many nutraceutical properties like antiallergic, antioxidant, anti-platelet aggregation, and hypoglycemic. Cumin and value added products from cumin can be a good source of nutraceuticals with many biological activities. Incorporation of cumin into food products will have the benefits of a flavorant and nutraceutical at the same time. In the present review, the chemistry, processing, and biological activities of cumin and its components are discussed.

Concepts: Nutrition, Value added, Apiaceae, Essential oil, Caraway, Cumin, Coriander, Curry powder

28

Integration of the HIV-1 DNA is required and essential to maintain the viral DNA in the infected cell. Integration process occurs in several events, mainly endonucleolytic processing of the 3' ends of the viral DNA and strand transfer or joining of the viral and cellular DNA. The design and discovery of integrase inhibitors were first focused at targeting the catalytic site of IN with a specific effect on strand transfer. Several integrase inhibitors were developed clinically, two first generation inhibitors, raltegravir and elvitegravir and then two second-generation inhibitors, dolutegravir and MK-2058. Recently, allosteric integrase inhibitors intended to interfere with the integrase-LEDGF/p75 interaction have been designed. These new inhibitors called LEDGINs have an effect on 3' processing and strand transfer. Thus, integrase inhibitors present a real added value in combined treatment for naive and experienced HIV infected patients. Combination experiments of LEDGINs and raltegravir suggest that these inhibitors could act additively despite sharing the same viral target. Future therapy could involve combinations of inhibitors of IN function acting though different binding pockets within IN. The place of this class on HIV inhibitors and their future role in perspective of novel therapies to eliminate latent HIV reservoirs and infection for cure should also be explored.

Concepts: Antiretroviral drug, HIV, Value added, Reverse transcriptase, Retrovirus, Integrase inhibitor, Raltegravir, Integrase

27

BackgroundPseudoprogression is a treatment-related reaction with an increase in contrast-enhancing lesion size, followed by subsequent improvement. Differentiating tumor recurrence from pseudoprogression remains a problem in neuro-oncology.PurposeTo validate the added value of arterial spin labeling (ASL), compared with dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) alone, in distinguishing early tumor progression from pseudoprogression in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM).Material and MethodsWe retrospectively evaluated 117 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed GBM who underwent surgical resection and concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) as standard treatment modality. Sixty-two patients who developed contrast-enhancing lesions were assessed by both ASL and DSC perfusion MRI and classified into groups of early tumor recurrence (n = 34) or pseudoprogression (n = 28) based on pathologic analysis or clinical-radiologic follow-up. We used a qualitative analysis and semi-quantitative grade system on the basis of the tumor perfusion signal intensity into those equal to white matter (grade I), gray matter (grade II), and blood vessels (grade III) on ASL imaging. ASL grade was correlated with histogram parameters derived from DSC perfusion MRI.ResultsPseudoprogression was observed in 15 (53.6%) patients with ASL grade I, 13 (46.4%) with grade II, and 0 (0%) with grade III, with early tumor progression observed in seven (20.6%) patients with ASL grade I, 11 (32.3%) with grade II, and 16 (47.1%) with grade III (P = 0.0022). DSC perfusion histogram parameters differed significantly among ASL grades. ASL grade was an independent predictor differentiating pseudoprogression from early tumor progression (odds ratio, 4.73; P = 0.0017). On qualitative review, adjunctive ASL produced eight (12.9%) more accurate results than DSC perfusion MRI alone.ConclusionASL improves the diagnostic accuracy of DSC perfusion MRI in differentiating pseudoprogression from early tumor progression.

Concepts: Blood, Spin, Brain tumor, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Magnetic resonance imaging, Value added, Perfusion, Glioblastoma multiforme

27

OBJECTIVE: to explore whether choices in birthing positions contributes to women’s sense of control during birth. DESIGN: survey using a self-report questionnaire. Multiple regression analyses were used to investigate which factors associated with choices in birthing positions affected women’s sense of control. SETTING: midwifery practices in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: 1030 women with a physiological pregnancy and birth from 54 midwifery practices. FINDINGS: in the total group of women (n=1030) significant predictors for sense of control were: influence on birthing positions (self or self together with others), attendance of antenatal classes, feelings towards birth in pregnancy and pain in second stage of labour. For women who preferred other than supine birthing positions (n=204) significant predictors were: influence on birthing positions (self or self together with others), feelings towards birth in pregnancy, pain in second stage of labour and having a home birth. For these women, influence on birthing positions in combination with others had a greater effect on their sense of control than having an influence on their birthing positions just by themselves. KEY CONCLUSIONS: women felt more in control during birth if they experienced an influence on birthing positions. For women preferring other than supine positions, home birth and shared decision-making had added value. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: midwives can play an important role in supporting women in their use of different birthing positions and help them find the positions they feel most comfortable in. Thus, contributing to women’s positive experience of birth.

Concepts: Regression analysis, Pregnancy, Childbirth, Obstetrics, Value added, Traditional birth attendant, Midwifery, Home birth

26

The majority of primary care patients referred for bowel endoscopy do not have significant colorectal disease (SCD), and are - in hindsight - unnecessarily exposed to a small but realistic risk of severe endoscopy-associated complications. We developed a diagnostic strategy to better exclude SCD in these patients and evaluated the value of adding a faecal calprotectin point-of-care (POC) and/or a POC faecal immunochemical test for haemoglobin (FIT) to routine clinical information.

Concepts: Medical terms, United States, Developed country, Colorectal cancer, Value added, United Kingdom, Primary care, Enteroscopy