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Concept: Valsalva maneuver


Venipuncture is one of the most painful events for children in hospitals. Valsalva maneuver (VM) decreases the incidence and severity of pain on venipuncture pain in adults. This study was designed to evaluate VM as compared with Eutectic Mixture of Local Anesthetic (EMLA(®)) cream for venipuncture pain in children.

Concepts: Neurology, Anesthesia, Local anesthesia, Pain, Local anesthetic, Valsalva maneuver, Virtual machine


Hiatal hernia (HH) can cause left atrial (LA) compression and impair LA filling. We evaluated the cardiac effects of preload reduction and abdominal strain induced by Valsalva maneuver (VM) in large HH patients.

Concepts: Heart, Valsalva maneuver


The aims of this prospective experimental study were to explore the influence of the Valsalva manoeuvre (VM) on retinal venous pressure (RVP) in human volunteers in a university setting and to establish correlations for RVP with the increase in airway pressure (∆AirP) and in intraocular pressure (∆IOP).

Concepts: Blood pressure, Intraocular pressure, Underwater diving, Valsalva maneuver


Eustachian tube dysfunction has been associated with most cases of middle-ear disease. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of dynamic slow motion video endoscopy (DSVE) as a test of eustachian tube dysfunction. Furthermore, we assessed the correlation of the test with the Valsalva maneuver, the seven-item Eustachian Tube Dysfunction Questionnaire (ETDQ-7), and intraoperative findings of the eustachian tube.

Concepts: Middle ear, Eustachian tube, Otitis media, Ear, Pseudoephedrine, Patulous Eustachian tube, Valsalva maneuver, Ear clearing


To evaluate the effect of the Valsalva maneuver (VM) on anterior segment parameters and its association with refractive status.

Concepts: Valsalva maneuver, Virtual machine


To investigate the effects of Valsalva maneuver (VM) on retrobulbar blood flow parameters in healthy subjects.

Concepts: Hematology, Doppler effect, Valsalva maneuver


To determine if the anterior choroid is involved in ocular change during the Valsalva manoeuvre (VM).

Concepts: Change, Valsalva maneuver


Pneumatocele of the lacrimal sac is an uncommon entity and has been rarely reported in literature. The valvular function of the Hasner’s valve at the lower end of nasolacrimal duct is presumed to prevent the retrograde reflux of air into the lacrimal sac with increased intranasal pressure as in valsalva maneuver. Loss of this valvular function as noted with persistent positive airway pressure ventilation can cause retrograde air reflux into lacrimal sac. The authors report a case of lacrimal sac pneumatocele which developed following blunt nasal trauma involving the bony nasolacrimal duct.

Concepts: HVAC, Valve, Lacrimal sac, Lacrimal apparatus, Nasolacrimal duct, Nasolacrimal canal, Underwater diving, Valsalva maneuver


The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of non-suture dural closure using a novel dural substitute (GM111) consisting of polyglycolic acid felt with a fibrin-glue-coated area commensurate in size with the dural defect. This was a non-controlled, open-label, multicenter clinical trial. The efficacy evaluation endpoints were (1) GM111’s intra-operative capability to close dural defects and (2) prevention of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage and subcutaneous CSF retention throughout the postoperative period (evaluated by diagnostic imaging). Patients meeting the following three preoperative and two intra-operative selection criteria were enrolled: (1) between 12 and <75 years of age; (2) the dura is surmised to be defective and in need of reconstruction; (3) informed written consent was obtained from the patient; (4) the surgical wound is class 1; and (5) the size of duraplasty is ≥0.2 cm(2) to <100 cm(2). Sixty patients were enrolled. The craniotomy site was supratentorial in 77.2%, infratentorial in 12.3% and sellar in 10.5%. The GM111 prosthesis size ranged from 0.24 to 42 cm(2). To evaluate the efficacy, intra-operative closure was confirmed by Valsalva's maneuver, water infusion, etc., in all patients. CSF leakage and subcutaneous CSF retention throughout the postoperative period were found in four patients. Adverse events for which a causal relationship with GM111 could not be ruled out occurred in 8.8% of the patients. There were no instances of postoperative infection due to GM111. GM111 showed good closure capability and safety when used for non-suture dural closure.

Concepts: Clinical trial, Causality, Patient, Informed consent, Surgery, Cerebrospinal fluid, Adverse event, Valsalva maneuver


There is no agreement on the best clinical test for Eustachian tube (ET) dysfunction. Numerous tests have been developed to detect ET opening, and all require a patient to perform a Valsalva, Toynbee or sniff maneuver, or to swallow on demand. We aimed to characterize existing tests of ET function in healthy ears, and identify the optimal method and patient maneuver for each test. Our own normative data is presented alongside published comparisons.

Concepts: Clinical trial, Auditory system, Eustachian tube, Ear, Social sciences, Normative, Valsalva maneuver, Ear clearing