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Concept: Urogenital sinus


BACKGROUND: To investigate the effect of prostaglandin depletion by means of COX-inhibition on cholinergic enhanced spontaneous contractions. METHODS: The urethra and bladder of 9 male guinea pigs (weight 270–300 g) were removed and placed in an organ bath with Krebs' solution. A catheter was passed through the urethra through which the intravesical pressure was measured. The muscarinic agonist arecaidine, the non-selective COX inhibitor indomethacin, and PGE2 were subsequently added to the organ bath. The initial average frequency and amplitude of spontaneous contractions in the first 2 minutes after arecaidine application were labelled Fini and Pini, respectively. The steady state frequency (Fsteady) and amplitude (Psteady) were defined as the average frequency and amplitude during the 5 minutes before the next wash out. RESULTS: Application of 1 muM PGE2 increased the amplitude of spontaneous contractions without affecting frequency. 10 muM of indomethacin reduced amplitude but not frequency.The addition of indomethacin did not alter Fini after the first application (p = 0.7665). However, after the second wash, Fini was decreased (p = 0.0005). Fsteady, Psteady and Pini were not significantly different in any of the conditions. These effects of indomethacin were reversible by PGE2 addition.. CONCLUSIONS: Blocking PG synthesis decreased the cholinergically stimulated autonomous contractions in the isolated bladder. This suggests that PG could modify normal cholinergically evoked response. A combination of drugs inhibiting muscarinic receptors and PG function or production can then become an interesting focus of research on a treatment for overactive bladder syndrome.

Concepts: Urine, Urology, Urinary bladder, Urinary system, Urethra, Ureter, Urogenital sinus, Guinea pig


Metagenomic analyses have indicated that the female bladder harbors an indigenous microbiota. However, there are few cultured reference strains with sequenced genomes available for functional and experimental analyses. Here we isolate and genome-sequence 149 bacterial strains from catheterized urine of 77 women. This culture collection spans 78 species, representing approximately two thirds of the bacterial diversity within the sampled bladders, including Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. Detailed genomic and functional comparison of the bladder microbiota to the gastrointestinal and vaginal microbiotas demonstrates similar vaginal and bladder microbiota, with functional capacities that are distinct from those observed in the gastrointestinal microbiota. Whole-genome phylogenetic analysis of bacterial strains isolated from the vagina and bladder in the same women identifies highly similar Escherichia coli, Streptococcus anginosus, Lactobacillus iners, and Lactobacillus crispatus, suggesting an interlinked female urogenital microbiota that is not only limited to pathogens but is also characteristic of health-associated commensals.

Concepts: Bacteria, Gut flora, Microbiology, Uterus, Escherichia coli, Urinary bladder, Urogenital sinus, Firmicutes


In 1950, Gräfenberg described a distinct erotogenic zone on the anterior wall of the vagina, which was referred to as the Gräfenberg spot (G-spot) by Addiego, Whipple (a nurse) et al. in 1981. As a result, the G-spot has become a central topic of popular speculation and a basis of a huge business surrounding it. In our opinion, these sexologists have made a hotchpotch of Gräfenberg’s thoughts and ideas that were set forth and expounded in his 1950 article: the intraurethral glands are not the corpus spongiosum of the female urethra, and Gräfenberg did not report an orgasm of the intraurethral glands. G-spot amplification is a cosmetic surgery procedure for temporarily increasing the size and sensitivity of the G-spot in which a dermal filler or a collagen-like material is injected into the bladder-vaginal septum. All published scientific data point to the fact that the G-spot does not exist, and the supposed G-spot should not be identified with Gräfenberg’s name. Moreover, G-spot amplification is not medically indicated and is an unnecessary and inefficacious medical procedure.

Concepts: Medicine, Sexual intercourse, Surgery, Urethra, Human sexuality, Urogenital sinus, Orgasm, Penis


Leiomyomas can develop after hysterectomy and, when located in the bladder, can result in voiding dysfunction and incontinence.

Concepts: Uterus, Urinary incontinence, Urinary bladder, Gynecology, Urogenital sinus, Vaginal artery


Spindle cell epithelioma of the vagina is a benign entity with fewer than sixty cases described in the literature, and only two with limited imaging findings, since the early 1950s. Early pathology literature suggested the lesions were mixed tumors of myoepithelial origin, but subsequent studies have found relatively few immunohistochemical characteristics in common with other mixed cell tumors. More recently, Mullerian, urogenital sinus epithelial, and pluripotential cell origins have been proposed. Given lesion rarity and a typical lack of imaging before excision, the imaging appearance of vaginal spindle cell epitheliomas has not been fully described in the radiology literature, and without comprehensive pathology correlation. The authors describe a case of spindle cell epithelioma in a 54-year-old woman which was incidentally discovered on MRI performed for uterine fibroid embolization planning. Pathology and immunohistochemistry confirmed the diagnosis.

Concepts: Uterus, Anatomical pathology, Radiology, Cervix, Vagina, Urogenital sinus, Vulva, Uterine fibroids


To evaluate the impact of repair of uterovaginal prolapse using sacrospinous hysteropexy and vaginal wall repair on the bladder function.

Concepts: Uterus, Urinary bladder, Vagina, Urogenital sinus, Vaginal artery


To assess whether our novel uterus-sparing procedure- laparoscopic organopexy with non-mesh genital(LONG) suspension is an effective, safe, and timesaving surgery for the treatment of apical prolapse. Forty consecutive women with main uterine prolapse stage II or greater defined by the POP quantification(POP-Q) staging system were referred for LONG procedures at our hospitals. Clinical evaluations before and 6 months after surgery included pelvic examination, urodynamic study, and a personal interview to evaluate urinary and sexual symptoms with overactive bladder symptom score(OABSS), the short forms of Urogenital Distress Inventory(UDI-6) and Incontinence Impact Questionnaire(IIQ-7), and the Female Sexual Function Index(FSFI). After follow-up time of 12 to 30 months, anatomical cure rate was 85%(34/40), and the success rates for apical, anterior, and posterior vaginal prolapse were 95%(38/40), 85%(34/40), and 97.5%(39/40), respectively. Six recurrences of anterior vaginal wall all suffered from significant cystocele (stage3; Ba>+1) preoperatively. The average operative time was 73.1 ± 30.8 minutes. One bladder injury occurred and was recognized during surgery. The dyspareunia domain and total FSFI scores of the twelve sexually-active premenopausal women improved postoperatively in a significant manner (P < 0.05). The results of our study suggest that LONG suspension is an effective and safe uterus-sparing surgery for the treatment of apical prolapse.

Concepts: Sexual intercourse, Uterus, Surgery, Urinary incontinence, Vagina, Urogenital sinus, Vulva, Sex organ


Persistent urogenital sinus (PUGS) is a congenital pathological condition characterized by an abnormal communication between the urethra and vagina, which has an estimated incidence of 0.6/10,000 female births. It could be the only known malformation or part of a syndrome. PUGS is commonly shown by a pelvic mass, related to a distended bladder, hydrometrocolpos which is due to an obstruction leading to the dilation of the vagina and uterus (i.e., imperforate hymen, transverse vaginal septum or atresia, and PUGS) or both. We present a case of female patient with classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia, diagnosed on the 7th day of life, with ambiguous genitalia, untreated surgically only with hormone therapy by parental decision. The patient, at the age of 5 years and 5 months, came to our observation for a pelvic ultrasound, which revealed retrovesical neoformation with anechoic content and regular walls. We performed the ultrasound examination that showed the dilation of the cervix and the vaginal canal with anechoic finely corpuscolated content in the declining portion, compatible with hydrometrocolpos from probable persistence of the urogenital sinus. The voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) confirmed the ultrasound diagnosis, with evidence of urogenital sinus. In conclusion, ultrasound is the first diagnostic tool, but need to be completed by other technical procedures, which VCUG or magnetic resonance imaging to observe the site of fusion of the urinary and genital tract.

Concepts: Childbirth, Uterus, Reproductive system, Gynecology, Female reproductive system, Vagina, Urogenital sinus, Vulva


Regenerative medicine for reconstructive urogenital surgery has been widely studied during the last two decades. One of the key factors affecting the quality of bladder regeneration is the mechanical properties of the bladder scaffold. Insight into the biomechanics of this organ is expected to assist researchers with functional regeneration of the bladder wall. Due to extensive similarities between human bladder and porcine bladder, and with regard to lack of comprehensive biomechanical data from the porcine bladder wall (BW), our main goal here was to provide a thorough evaluation on viscoelastic properties of fresh porcine urinary BW. Three testing modes including Uniaxial tensile, ball-burst (BB) and Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) were applied in parallel. Uniaxial tests were applied to study how different circumferential and longitudinal cut-outs of lateral region of BW behave under load. DMA was used to measure the viscoelastic properties of the bladder tissue (storage and loss modulus) in a frequency range of 0.1-3Hz. BB was selected as a different technique, replicating normal physiological conditions where the BW is studied in whole. According to uniaxial tests, the anisotropic behavior of bladder is evident at strain loads higher than 200%. According to DMA, storage modulus is consistently higher than loss modulus in both directions, revealing the elasticity of the BW. The stress-strain curves of both uniaxial and BB tests showed similar trends. However, the ultimate stress measured from BB was found to be around 5 times of the relevant stress from uniaxial loading. The ultimate strain in BB (389.9 ± 59.8) was interestingly an approximate average of rupture strains in longitudinal (358 ± 21) and circumferential (435 ± 69) directions. Considering that each testing mode applied here reveals distinct information, outcomes from the combination of the three can be considered as a helpful data-base to refer to for researchers aiming to regenerate the bladder.

Concepts: Kidney, Urinary incontinence, Urinary bladder, Urinary system, Urethra, Ureter, Viscoelasticity, Urogenital sinus


The present study aimed to explore the application of 640-slice dynamic volume computed tomography (DVCT) to excretory cystography and urethrography. A total of 70 healthy subjects were included in the study. Excretory cystography and urethrography using 640-slice DVCT was conducted to continuously record the motions of the bladder and the proximal female and male urethra. The patients' voiding process was divided into early, early to middle, middle, middle to late, and late voiding phases. The subjects were analyzed using DVCT and conventional CT. The cross-sectional areas of various sections of the male and female urethra were evaluated, and the average urine flow rate was calculated. The 640-slice DVCT technique was used to dynamically observe the urine flow rate and changes in bladder volume at all voiding phases. The urine volume detected by 640-slice DVCT exhibited no significant difference compared with the actual volume, and no significant difference compared with that determined using conventional CT. Furthermore, no significant difference in the volume of the bladder at each phase of the voiding process was detected between 640-slice DVCT and conventional CT. The results indicate that 640-slice DVCT can accurately evaluate the status of the male posterior urethra and female urethra. In conclusion, 640-slice DVCT is able to multi-dimensionally and dynamically present changes in bladder volume and urine flow rate, and could obtain similar results to conventional CT in detecting urine volume, as well as the status of the male posterior urethra and female urethra.

Concepts: Urine, Urinary bladder, Urinary system, Urethra, Urination, Urogenital sinus, Kidney stone