SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: University of Utah

0

Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio is a strong predictor for overall survival and disease free survival in many cancers. Our study is the first investigation aiming to determine the predictive value of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio on prognosis of patients with stage III melanoma. This retrospective study utilized a cohort of 107 patients with stage III melanoma treated at Huntsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah, from May 2002 to March 2016. The optimal cutoff of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio was determined by the significance of log-rank tests. A total of 97 log-rank tests were conducted to find the optimal cutoff. Disease free survival was assessed using the Kaplan-Meier method, and univariable and multivariable Cox models were applied to evaluate the predictive value of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio. 2.5 was identified as the optimal cutoff. Kaplan-Meier curve showed that the disease free survival rate of the low value group was significantly higher compared to that of high value group. After adjusting for confounders and other prognostic factors, the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio ≥ 2.5 remained a strong predictor for disease recurrence in patients with stage III melanoma.

Concepts: Cancer, Lung cancer, Cancer staging, Thought experiment, University of Utah, Huntsman Cancer Institute, Sigma Chi, Jon Huntsman, Sr.

0

Editor’s note: On July 26, 2017, Alex Wubbels, the charge nurse on the burn unit at the University of Utah Hospital in Salt Lake City, was arrested for refusing to allow a police officer to draw blood from an unconscious patient in her care. Her arrest, during which she was forcefully placed in handcuffs and dragged out of the hospital, was documented on body camera video and drew national attention. We asked our ethical and legal contributing editors to provide some insight on the issues of this case.

Concepts: Police, Great Salt Lake, Utah, Salt Lake City, University of Utah, Pioneer Theatre Company, Fort Douglas, Utah, UTA TRAX

0

In the summer of 2016 an international group of biomedical and health informatics faculty and graduate students gathered for the 16th meeting of the International Partnership in Health Informatics Education (IPHIE) masterclass at the University of Utah campus in Salt Lake City, Utah. This international biomedical and health informatics workshop was created to share knowledge and explore issues in biomedical health informatics (BHI).

Concepts: Education, University, Summer of Love, Great Salt Lake, Utah, Salt Lake City, University of Utah, Pioneer Theatre Company

0

OBJECTIVE Flow diversion has proven to be an efficacious means of treating cerebral aneurysms that are refractory to other therapeutic means. Patients with tandem aneurysms treated with flow diversion have been included in larger, previously reported series; however, there are no dedicated reports on using this technique during a single session to treat this unique subset of patients. Therefore, the authors analyzed the outcomes of patients who had undergone single-session flow diversion for the treatment of tandem aneurysms. METHODS The authors conducted a retrospective review of flow diversion with the Pipeline embolization device (PED) for the treatment of tandem aneurysms in a single session at 2 participating medical centers: University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, and Barrow Neurological Institute, Phoenix, Arizona. Patient demographic data, aneurysm characteristics, treatment strategy and results, complications, and follow-up data were collected from the medical record and analyzed. RESULTS Between January 2011 and December 2015, 17 patients (12 female, 5 male) with a total of 38 aneurysms (mean size 4.7 ± 2.7 mm, mean ± SD) were treated. Sixteen patients had aneurysms in the anterior circulation, and 1 patient had tandem aneurysms in the posterior circulation. Twelve patients underwent only placement of a PED, whereas 5 underwent adjunctive coil embolization of at least 1 aneurysm. One PED was used in each of 9 patients, and 2 PEDs were required in each of 8 patients. There were 2 intraprocedural complications; however, in both instances, the patients were asymptomatic at the last follow-up. The follow-up imaging studies were available for 15 patients at a mean of 7 months after treatment (216 days, range 0-540 days). The mean initial Raymond score after treatment was 2.7 ± 0.7, and the mean final score was 1.3 ± 0.7. CONCLUSIONS In this series, the use of flow diversion for the treatment of tandem cerebral aneurysms had an acceptable safety profile, indicating that it should be considered as an effective therapy for this complicated subset of patients. Further prospective studies must be performed before more definitive conclusions can be made.

Concepts: Medicine, Radiology, Arithmetic mean, Aneurysm, Cerebral aneurysm, Utah, Salt Lake City, University of Utah

0

The United Kingdom’s National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) recently published recommendations that support planned home birth for low-risk women. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) remains wary of planned home birth, asserting that hospitals and birthing centers are the safest birth settings. Our objective was to examine opinions of obstetricians in Salt Lake City, Utah about home birth in the context of rising home birth rates and conflicting guidelines.

Concepts: Childbirth, United Kingdom, England, Great Salt Lake, Utah, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, Utah, University of Utah

0

Conditional survival (CS) is a clinically useful prediction measure which adjusts a patient’s prognosis based on their duration of survival since initiation of therapy. CS has been described in numerous malignancies, and recently described in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) who received vascular endothelial growth factor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (VEGFTKI) therapy. However, CS has been not reported in the context of mRCC treated with high-dose interleukin-2 therapy (HDIL-2). A total of 176 patients with histologically confirmed metastatic clear cell RCC (mccRCC) treated with HDIL-2 at the University of Utah Huntsman Cancer Institute from 1988-2012 were evaluated. Using the Heng/IMDC model, they were stratified by performance status and prognostic risk groups. Two-year CS was defined as the probability of surviving an additional two years from initiation of HDIL-2 to 18 months after the start of HDIL-2 at three-month intervals. The median overall survival (OS) was 19.9 months. Stratifying patients into favourable (n = 35; 20%), intermediate (n = 110; 63%), and poor (n = 31; 18%) prognostic groups resulted in median OS of 47.5 (HR 0.57, 95% CI 0.35-0.88, p = 0.0106 versus intermediate), 19.6 (HR 0.33, 95% CI 0.10-0.33, p < 0.0001 versus poor), and 8.8 (HR 5.34, 95% CI 3.00-9.62, p < 0.0001 versus favourable) months respectively. Two-year overall CS increased from 43% at therapy initiation to 100% at 18 months. These results have significant ramifications in prognostication. Furthermore, it is important when counseling patients with mccRCC who have completed treatment with HDIL-2 and are in active follow-up.

Concepts: Cancer, Signal transduction, Lung cancer, Prognosis, Renal cell carcinoma, TheStart, University of Utah, Huntsman Cancer Institute

0

Ipilimumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody that binds cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 to enhance antitumour immunity. Our aim was to assess the use of ipilimumab after radiotherapy in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer that progressed after docetaxel chemotherapy.

Concepts: Cancer, Chemotherapy, Prostate cancer, Netherlands, Paclitaxel, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Radboud University Nijmegen, University of Utah

0

In July, the Tisch Cancer Institute in New York became the 69th cancer center in the United States to earn NCI designation. Four other NCI-designated cancer centers attained comprehensive status: the University of Utah’s Huntsman Cancer Institute; the University of Texas Southwestern’s Simmons Cancer Center; Baylor College of Medicine’s Duncan Cancer Center; and the University of New Mexico Cancer Center.

Concepts: United States, U.S. state, New York City, Native Americans in the United States, Texas, New Mexico, University of Utah, Huntsman Cancer Institute

0

FilmArray Respiratory Panel (RP) (Idaho Technology, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT, USA) performance was retrospectively evaluated in respiratory samples collected from neonates in 2 reference neonatology units. Using the FilmArray RP assay, 121/152 (79.6%) samples were positive for at least 1 respiratory virus, while 31/152 (20.4%) were negative. FilmArray RP results were concordant in 68/72 (94.4%) respiratory samples tested with laboratory-developed real-time PCR assays, while in 4/72 (5.6%) samples, the FilmArray RP assay detected an additional virus (2 human rhinovirus/enterovirus and 2 bocavirus). In addition, FilmArray RP results for 70 of 80 (87.5%) respiratory samples tested were concordant with the Seegene Seeplex RV15® detection assay (Seegene, Inc., Seoul, South Korea), while 10/80 (12.5%) were discordant. The advantages of the FilmArray RP are the rapid detection of respiratory viruses (1 hour), the wide number of pathogens detectable in a single assay, and the reduced hands-on time.

Concepts: Polymerase chain reaction, Pediatrics, Laboratory techniques, South Korea, Utah, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake City, Utah, University of Utah

0

PURPOSE: To validate a porcine lens model by comparing density and ultrasound (US) with known human standards using the Infiniti Ozil with Intelligent Phacoemulsification (torsional), Whitestar Signature Micropulse (longitudinal), and Ellips FX (transversal) modalities. SETTING: Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, John A. Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. DESIGN: Experimental study. METHODS: Lens nuclei were formalin soaked in hour-based intervals and divided into 2.0 mm cubes. Density was characterized by crushing experiments and compared with known human measures. Efficiency and chatter were examined. RESULTS: The mean weight to cut thickness in half ranged from 16.9 g ± 5.5 (SD) in the 0-hour group to 121.3 ± 47.5 gm in the 4-hour group. Lenses in the 2-hour group (mean 70.2 ± 19.1 g) best matched human density (P=.215). The mean efficiency ranged from 0.432 ± 0.178 seconds to 9.111 ± 2.925 seconds; chatter ranged from zero to 1.85 ± 1.927 bounces. No significant difference was detected when comparing the 2-hour formalin group with human lenses in torsional and transversal US. There was no significant difference between transversal and torsional modalities, consistent with human studies. Although longitudinal (6 milliseconds on, 12 milliseconds off) was significantly more efficient at 50% power than at 25%, there was no significant difference compared with transversal or torsional US. CONCLUSIONS: Animal lenses soaked for 2 hours in formalin were most comparable to human lenses. Longitudinal US may be an acceptable alternative to torsional and transversal US. FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE: Dr. Olson has been a consultant to Abbott Medical Optics, Inc., Becton, Dickinson and Co., and Allergan, Inc., and received grant support from Abbott Medical Optics, Inc. and Allergan, Inc. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned.

Concepts: Optics, Ophthalmology, Phacoemulsification, Utah, Salt Lake City, University of Utah