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Concept: United States Marshals Service

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In the United States, health insurance coverage for autism spectrum disorder treatments has been historically limited. In response, as of 2015, 40 states and Washington, DC, have passed state autism insurance mandates requiring many health plans in the private insurance market to cover autism diagnostic and treatment services. This study examined five states' experiences implementing autism insurance mandates. Semi-structured, key-informant interviews were conducted with 17 participants representing consumer advocacy organizations, provider organizations, and health insurance companies. Overall, participants thought that the mandates substantially affected the delivery of autism services. While access to autism treatment services has increased as a result of implementation of state mandates, states have struggled to keep up with the demand for services. Participants provided specific information about barriers and facilitators to meeting this demand. Understanding of key informants' perceptions about states' experiences implementing autism insurance mandates is useful for other states considering adopting or expanding mandates or other policies to expand access to autism treatment services.

Concepts: United States Marshals Service, Asperger syndrome, Pervasive developmental disorder, U.S. state, United States, Autism spectrum, Autism, Insurance

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It has long been suspected that the illicit distribution of cocaine in the United States has led to a large-scale contamination of the currency supply. To investigate the extent of contamination, 418 currency samples (4174 bills) were collected from 90 locations around the United States from 1993 to 2009. The extent of their cocaine contamination was quantitated via gas chromatography/mass spectrometry or liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. The level of cocaine contamination was determined to average 2.34 ng/bill across all denominations ($1, $5, $10, $20, $50, and $100). Levels of cocaine contamination on currency submitted to the Federal Bureau of Investigation Laboratory in criminal cases over the 1993-2001 timeframe had significantly higher contamination than currency in general circulation. A mathematical model was developed based on the background survey that indicates the likelihood of drawing a bill in specific concentration ranges. For example, there is a 0.8349 likelihood that random bill will have contamination less than 20 ng.

Concepts: Federal republic, Poverty in the United States, U.S. state, United States Marshals Service, Martin Luther King, Jr., United States dollar, Federal Bureau of Investigation, United States

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This paper describes an episode in the life of the prominent plant radiation geneticist, Lewis J. Stadler (1897-1954) during which he became a target of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) concerning loyalty to the United States due to possible associations with the communist party. The research is based on considerable private correspondence of Dr. Stadler, the FBI interrogatory questions and Dr. Stadler’s answers and letters of support for Dr. Stadler by leading scientists such as, Hermann J. Muller.

Concepts: World War II, United States Marshals Service, Martin Luther King, Jr., Law enforcement agency, J. Edgar Hoover, Cold War, Federal Bureau of Investigation, United States

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Rural populations in the United States have lower physical activity levels and are at a higher risk of being overweight and suffering from obesity than their urban counterparts. This paper aimed to understand the environmental factors that influence physical activity among rural adults in Montana. Eight built environment audits, 15 resident focus groups, and 24 key informant interviews were conducted between August and December 2014. Themes were triangulated and summarized into five categories of environmental factors: built, social, organizational, policy, and natural environments. Although the existence of active living features was documented by environmental audits, residents and key informants agreed that additional indoor recreation facilities and more well-maintained and conveniently located options were needed. Residents and key informants also agreed on the importance of age-specific, well-promoted, and structured physical activity programs, offered in socially supportive environments, as facilitators to physical activity. Key informants, however, noted that funding constraints and limited political will were barriers to developing these opportunities. Since building new recreational facilities and structures to support active transportation pose resource challenges, especially for rural communities, our results suggest that enhancing existing features, making small improvements, and involving stakeholders in the city planning process would be more fruitful to build momentum towards larger changes.

Concepts: United States, Physical exercise, United States Marshals Service, Obesity, Environment, Natural environment

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Despite low to moderate convergent correlations, assessment of youth typically relies on multiple informants for information across a range of psychosocial domains including parenting practices. Although parent-youth informant discrepancies have been found to predict adverse youth outcomes, few studies have examined contributing factors to the explanation of informant disagreements on parenting practices. The current study represents the first investigation to concurrently examine the role of mother and son’s self-reported affective dimensions of temperament and depression as pathways to informant discrepancies on parenting practices. Within a community sample of 174 mother-son dyads, results suggest that whereas mother’s self-reported temperament evidenced no direct effects on discrepancies, the association between the product term of mother’s negative and positive temperament and discrepancies on positive parenting was fully mediated by mother’s depression (a mediated moderation). In contrast, son’s self-reported temperament evidenced both direct and indirect effects, partially mediated by depression, on rating discrepancies for positive parenting. All told, both son’s self-reported affective dimensions of temperament and depression contributed to the explanation of discrepant reporting on parenting practices; only mother’s self-reported depression, but not temperament, uniquely contributed. Results highlight the importance of considering both parent and youth’s report in the investigation of informant discrepancies on parenting practices. (PsycINFO Database Record

Concepts: Indirect effect, Informant, Parenting practices, United States Marshals Service, Emotion, Organized crime, Parent, Parenting

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This study relies on IPUMS samples of the 1850, 1860, 1870, and 1880 censuses, aggregate census data, and the timing of state laws criminalizing abortion to construct regional estimates of marital fertility in the United States and estimate correlates of marital fertility. The results show a significant lag between the onset of marital fertility decline in the nation’s northeastern census divisions and its onset in western and southern census divisions. Empirical models indicate the presence of cultural, economic, and legal impediments to the diffusion of marital fertility control and illustrate the need for more inclusive models of fertility decline.

Concepts: Fertility, Law of the United States, United States Marshals Service, Massachusetts, Sudan, U.S. state, Western culture, United States

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In the United States, federal regulations require that outpatient practices provide a clinical summary to ensure that patients understand what transpired during their appointment and what to do before the next visit. To determine whether clinical summaries are appropriately designed to achieve these objectives, we examined their content and formatting and their usability. We obtained a convenience sample of clinical summaries from 13 diverse practices across the U.S. and assessed their characteristics using validated measures. We also interviewed key informants at these practices to assess their views of the documents. The summaries were generated by seven different electronic health record platforms. They had small font sizes (median, 10 point) and high reading grade levels (median, 10). Suitability, measured with the Suitability Assessment of Materials was low (median score, 61%) and understandability and actionability, measured with the Patient Education Materials Assessment Test, were fair to moderate (65% and 78%, respectively). Content and order of content were inconsistent across the summaries. Among physicians, 46% found the summaries helpful for clarifying medications while 38% found them helpful for conveying follow-up information. Results suggest that clinical summaries in the U.S. may often be suboptimally designed for communicating important information with patients. A patient-centered approach to designing them is warranted.

Concepts: Federal republic, Poverty in the United States, United States Marshals Service, Patient, U.S. state, Electronic health record, Assessment, United States

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The U.S. Marshals Service (USMS) prisoner population is diverse and includes immigration violators, fugitives that have evaded apprehension, perpetrators of Medicaid fraud, and parole and probation violators. Unlike state and local jails, the USMS has numerous housing options for its prisoners. Given the unique characteristics, federal prisoners' quality of care, and subsequent clinical outcomes, may differ from those of state and local inmates. However, little is known about hospitalization rates and length of stay for HIV-positive USMS prisoners. The purpose of this study is to examine hospitalizations among HIV-infected prisoners in the custody of the USMS.

Concepts: The Fugitive, United States Secret Service, United States Department of Justice, Marshal, Fugitive, Federal Bureau of Investigation, United States, United States Marshals Service

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When a criminal defendant flees from one state (often referred to as the requesting state) to another (often referred to as the asylum state), the requesting state can demand that the asylum state return the defendant through a process called extradition. Only a handful of states have considered a fugitive’s right to be competent to proceed with an extradition hearing. Those states fall into three categories. Some states apply the same standard as in criminal trial competency cases. Others apply a more limited competency standard. Two have found that a fugitive has no right to be competent to proceed in an extradition hearing. The particular legal test adopted affects the nature and scope of the competency evaluation conducted by the psychiatrist or psychologist in the extradition hearing. In addition, we are not aware of any state that has considered what happens to the fugitive if he is ultimately found not competent to proceed. Legislation, either state by state or through amendments to the Uniform Criminal Extradition Act, can provide the legal and psychiatric communities with guidance in assessing competency initially and in taking appropriate steps if the fugitive is ultimately found not competent.

Concepts: Crime, Criminal law, Legal terms, Mental health professional, Trial, United States Marshals Service, United States Constitution, Kenneth L. Curtis