SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: UK Biobank

537

 To determine whether height and body mass index (BMI) have a causal role in five measures of socioeconomic status.

Concepts: Mass, Sociology, Industrial Revolution, Body mass index, United Kingdom, UK Biobank

46

In this cross-sectional analysis of the UK Biobank cohort, a history of fracture was associated with increased risk of current widespread chronic pain.

Concepts: Research methods, Epidemiology, United Kingdom, UK Biobank

31

The adverse impact of visual impairment and blindness and correlations with socioeconomic position are known. Understanding of the effect of the substantially more common near-normal vision (mild impairment) and associations with social position as well as health and life chances is limited.

Concepts: Sociology, United Kingdom, English language, Visual impairment, UK Biobank

28

We examined whether seasonal variations in depressive symptoms occurred independently of demographic and lifestyle factors, and were related to change in day length and/or outdoor temperature.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Cross-sectional study, United Kingdom, Anarchy in the U.K., Biobank, UK Biobank

24

Handgrip strength may provide an easily-administered marker of cognitive functional status. However, further population-scale research examining relationships between grip strength and cognitive performance across multiple domains is needed. Additionally, relationships between grip strength and cognitive functioning in people with schizophrenia, who frequently experience cognitive deficits, has yet to be explored.

Concepts: Sociology, Cognition, Grip strength, Biobank, UK Biobank

14

To quantify the association of self-reported walking pace and handgrip strength with all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality.

Concepts: Scientific method, Epidemiology, Observational study, The Association, Sunshine pop, Biobank, UK Biobank

13

We present a practical “how-to” guide to help determine whether single-subject fMRI independent components (ICs) characterise structured noise or not. Manual identification of signal and noise after ICA decomposition is required for efficient data denoising: to train supervised algorithms, to check the results of unsupervised ones or to manually clean the data. In this paper we describe the main spatial and temporal features of ICs and provide general guidelines on how to evaluate these. Examples of signal and noise components are provided from a wide range of datasets (3T data, including examples from the UK Biobank and the Human Connectome Project, and 7T data), together with practical guidelines for their identification. Finally, we discuss how the data quality, data type and preprocessing can influence the characteristics of the ICs and present examples of particularly challenging datasets.

Concepts: Computer program, Metaphysics, Programming language, Manual transmission, UK Biobank

5

Policy makers are being encouraged to specifically target sugar intake in order to combat obesity. We examined the extent to which sugar, relative to other macronutrients, was associated with adiposity.

Concepts: Nutrition, Obesity, Adipose tissue, Policy, Self number, Biobank, UK Biobank

5

UK Biobank’s ambitious aim is to perform cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in 100,000 people previously recruited into this prospective cohort study of half a million 40-69 year-olds.

Concepts: Cohort study, Epidemiology, UK Biobank

5

BACKGROUND: Effective translational biomedical research hinges on the operation of “biobanks,” repositories which assemble, store, and manage collections of human specimens and related data. Some are established intentionally to address particular research needs; many, however, have arisen opportunistically, in a variety of settings and with a variety of expectations regarding their functions and longevity. Despite their rising prominence, little is known about how biobanks are organized and function beyond simple classification systems (“government, academia, industry”). Methods: In 2012, we conducted the first national survey of biobanks in the U.S., collecting information on their origins, specimen collections, organizational structures, and market contexts and sustainability. From a list of 636 biobanks assembled through a multi-faceted search strategy, representatives from 456 U.S. biobanks were successfully recruited for a 30 minute online survey (72% response rate). Both closed and open-ended responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: While nearly two-thirds of biobanks were established within the last decade, 17% have been in existence for over 20 years. Fifty-three percent listed research on a particular disease as the most important reason for establishment; 29% listed research generally. Other reasons included response to a grant or gift, and intent to centralize, integrate, or harmonize existing research structures. Biobank collections are extraordinarily diverse in number and types of specimens and in sources (often multiple) from which they are obtained, including from individuals, clinics/hospitals, public health programs, and research studies. Forty-four percent of biobanks store pediatric specimens, and 36% include post-mortem specimens. Most biobanks are affiliated in one or multiple ways with other entities: 88% are part of at least one or more larger organizations (67% of these are academic, 23% hospitals, 13% research institutes). The majority of biobanks seem to fill a particular “niche” within a larger organization or research area; a minority are concerned about competition for services, although many are worried about underutilization of specimens and long term funding. Conclusions: Effective utilization of biobank collections and effective policies to govern their use will require understanding the immense diversity found in organizational features, including the very different history and primary goals that many biobanks have.

Concepts: Federal government of the United States, Organization, Specimen, Statistical survey, Biobank, UK Biobank, Generation Scotland