Cullin E3 ligases are the largest family of ubiquitin ligases with diverse cellular functions. One of seven cullin proteins serves as a scaffold protein for the assembly of the multisubunit ubiquitin ligase complex. Cullin binds the RING domain protein Rbx1/Rbx2 via its C-terminus and a cullin-specific substrate adaptor protein via its N-terminus. In the Cul3 ubiquitin ligase complex, Cul3 substrate receptors contain a BTB/POZ domain. Several studies have established that Cul3-based E3 ubiquitin ligases exist in a dimeric state which is required for binding of a number of substrates and has been suggested to promote ubiquitin transfer. In two different models, Cul3 has been proposed to dimerize either via BTB/POZ domain dependent substrate receptor homodimerization or via direct interaction between two Cul3 proteins that is mediated by Nedd8 modification of one of the dimerization partners. In this study, we show that the majority of the Cul3 proteins in cells exist as dimers or multimers and that Cul3 self-association is mediated via the Cul3 N-terminus while the Cul3 C-terminus is not required. Furthermore, we show that Cul3 self-association is independent of its modification with Nedd8. Our results provide evidence for BTB substrate receptor dependent Cul3 dimerization which is likely to play an important role in promoting substrate ubiquitination.
The 11 members of the Membrane-associated RING-CH (MARCH) ubiquitin ligase family are relatively unexplored. Upon exogenous (over)expression, a number of these ligases can affect the trafficking of membrane molecules, but only in case of MARCH-1 endogenous functions have been demonstrated. Of the other endogenous MARCH proteins, no functions or substrates are known. We report here that TRAIL-receptor ®1 is a physiological substrate of the endogenous MARCH-8 ligase. The two human TRAIL death receptors play a role in immunosurveillance and are targets for cancer therapy, since they selectively induce apoptosis in tumor cells. We demonstrate that TRAIL-R1 is downregulated from the cell surface, with great preference over TRAIL-R2, by exogenous expression of MARCH ligases that are implicated in endosomal trafficking, such as MARCH-1 and -8. MARCH-8 attenuated TRAIL-R1 cell surface expression and apoptosis signaling by virtue of its ligase activity. This suggested that ubiquitination of TRAIL-R1 was instrumental in its downregulation by MARCH-8. Indeed, in cells with endogenous MARCH expression, TRAIL-R1 was ubiquitinated at steady-state, with the conserved membrane-proximal lysine 273 as interaction and potential acceptor site. This residue was also essential for the interaction of TRAIL-R1 with MARCH-1 and MARCH-8 and its downregulation by these ligases. Gene silencing identified MARCH-8 as the endogenous ligase that ubiquitinates TRAIL-R1 and attenuates its cell surface expression. These findings reveal that endogenous MARCH-8 regulates the steady-state cell surface expression of TRAIL-R1.
A20 has been suggested to limit NF-κB activation by removing regulatory ubiquitin chains from ubiquitinated substrates. A20 is a ubiquitin-editing enzyme that removes K63-linked ubiquitin chains from adaptor proteins, such as RIP1, and then conjugates them to K48-linked polyubiquitin chains to trigger proteasomal degradation. To determine the role of the deubiquitinase function of A20 in downregulating NF-κB signaling, we have generated a knock-in mouse that lacks the deubiquitinase function of A20 (A20-OTU mice). These mice are normal and have no signs of inflammation, have normal proportions of B, T, dendritic, and myeloid cells, respond normally to LPS and TNF, and undergo normal NF-κB activation. Our results thus indicate that the deubiquitinase activity of A20 is dispensable for normal NF-κB signaling.
p53 down-regulates SARS coronavirus replication and is targeted by the SARS-unique domain and PLpro via E3 ubiquitin ligase RCHY1
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Published about 1 year ago
Highly pathogenic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) has developed strategies to inhibit host immune recognition. We identify cellular E3 ubiquitin ligase ring-finger and CHY zinc-finger domain-containing 1 (RCHY1) as an interacting partner of the viral SARS-unique domain (SUD) and papain-like protease (PL(pro)), and, as a consequence, the involvement of cellular p53 as antagonist of coronaviral replication. Residues 95-144 of RCHY1 and 389-652 of SUD (SUD-NM) subdomains are crucial for interaction. Association with SUD increases the stability of RCHY1 and augments RCHY1-mediated ubiquitination as well as degradation of p53. The calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II delta (CAMK2D), which normally influences RCHY1 stability by phosphorylation, also binds to SUD. In vivo phosphorylation shows that SUD does not regulate phosphorylation of RCHY1 via CAMK2D. Similarly to SUD, the PL(pro)s from SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and HCoV-NL63 physically interact with and stabilize RCHY1, and thus trigger degradation of endogenous p53. The SARS-CoV papain-like protease is encoded next to SUD within nonstructural protein 3. A SUD-PL(pro) fusion interacts with RCHY1 more intensively and causes stronger p53 degradation than SARS-CoV PL(pro) alone. We show that p53 inhibits replication of infectious SARS-CoV as well as of replicons and human coronavirus NL63. Hence, human coronaviruses antagonize the viral inhibitor p53 via stabilizing RCHY1 and promoting RCHY1-mediated p53 degradation. SUD functions as an enhancer to strengthen interaction between RCHY1 and nonstructural protein 3, leading to a further increase in in p53 degradation. The significance of these findings is that down-regulation of p53 as a major player in antiviral innate immunity provides a long-sought explanation for delayed activities of respective genes.
Immunomodulatory drugs bind to cereblon (CRBN) to confer differentiated substrate specificity on the CRL4(CRBN) E3 ubiquitin ligase. Here we report the identification of a new cereblon modulator, CC-885, with potent anti-tumour activity. The anti-tumour activity of CC-885 is mediated through the cereblon-dependent ubiquitination and degradation of the translation termination factor GSPT1. Patient-derived acute myeloid leukaemia tumour cells exhibit high sensitivity to CC-885, indicating the clinical potential of this mechanism. Crystallographic studies of the CRBN-DDB1-CC-885-GSPT1 complex reveal that GSPT1 binds to cereblon through a surface turn containing a glycine residue at a key position, interacting with both CC-885 and a ‘hotspot’ on the cereblon surface. Although GSPT1 possesses no obvious structural, sequence or functional homology to previously known cereblon substrates, mutational analysis and modelling indicate that the cereblon substrate Ikaros uses a similar structural feature to bind cereblon, suggesting a common motif for substrate recruitment. These findings define a structural degron underlying cereblon ‘neosubstrate’ selectivity, and identify an anti-tumour target rendered druggable by cereblon modulation.
Ribosome stalling during translation can be harmful, and is surveyed by a conserved quality control pathway that targets the associated mRNA and nascent polypeptide chain (NC). In this pathway, the ribosome-associated quality control (RQC) complex promotes the ubiquitylation and degradation of NCs remaining stalled in the 60S subunit. NC stalling is recognized by the Rqc2/Tae2 RQC subunit, which also stabilizes binding of the E3 ligase, Listerin/Ltn1. Additionally, Rqc2 modifies stalled NCs with a carboxy-terminal, Ala- and Thr-containing extension-the ‘CAT tail.’ However, the function of CAT tails and fate of CAT tail-modified (‘CATylated’) NCs has remained unknown. Here we show that CATylation mediates NC aggregation. NC CATylation and aggregation could be observed by inactivating Ltn1 or by analyzing NCs with limited ubiquitylation potential, suggesting that inefficient targeting by Ltn1 favors the Rqc2-mediated reaction. These findings uncover a translational stalling-dependent protein aggregation mechanism, and provide evidence that proteins can become marked for aggregation.
Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by maternal deletions or mutations of the ubiquitin ligase E3A (UBE3A) allele and characterized by minimal verbal communication, seizures, and disorders of voluntary movement. Previous studies have suggested that abnormal dopamine neurotransmission may underlie some of these deficits, but no effective treatment currently exists for the core features of AS. A clinical trial of levodopa (l-DOPA) in AS is ongoing, although the underlying rationale for this treatment strategy has not yet been thoroughly examined in preclinical models. We found that AS model mice lacking maternal Ube3a (Ube3am-/p+ mice) exhibit behavioral deficits that correlated with abnormal dopamine signaling. These deficits were not due to loss of dopaminergic neurons or impaired dopamine synthesis. Unexpectedly, Ube3am-/p+ mice exhibited increased dopamine release in the mesolimbic pathway while also exhibiting a decrease in dopamine release in the nigrostriatal pathway, as measured with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry. These findings demonstrate the complex effects of UBE3A loss on dopamine signaling in subcortical motor pathways that may inform ongoing clinical trials of l-DOPA therapy in patients with AS.
Interpreting variants of uncertain significance (VUS) is a central challenge in medical genetics. One approach is to experimentally measure the functional consequences of VUS, but to date this approach has been post hoc and low-throughput. Here we use massively parallel assays to measure the effects of nearly 2,000 missense substitutions in the RING domain of BRCA1 on its E3 ubiquitin ligase activity and its binding to the BARD1 RING domain. From the resulting scores, we generate a model to predict the capacities of full-length BRCA1 variants to support homology-directed DNA repair, the essential role of BRCA1 in tumor suppression, and show that it outperforms widely used biological-effect prediction algorithms. We envision that massively parallel functional assays may facilitate the prospective interpretation of variants observed in clinical sequencing.
The degradation of intracellular proteins is targeted by ubiquitin via non- lysosomal proteolytic pathway in cell system. These ubiquitin molecules have been found to be conserved from yeast to humans. Ubiquitin proteasome machinery utilises ATP and other mechanisms for degrading proteins of cytosol as well as nucleus. This process of ubiquitination is regulated by activating the E3 enzyme ligase, involved in phosphorylation. In humans, proteins which regulate the cell cycle are controlled by ubiquitin; therefore the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway can be targeted for novel anti-cancer strategies. Dysregulation of the components of the ubiquitin system has been linked to many diseases like cancer and inflammation. The primary triggering mechanism (apoptosis) of these diseases can also be induced when TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) binds to its specific receptor DR4 and DR5. In this review, the emerging prospects and importance of ubiquitin proteasome pathway as an evolving anticancer strategy have been discussed. Current challenges in the field of drug discovery have also been discussed on the basis of recent patents on cancer diagnosis and therapeutics.
- Combinatorial chemistry & high throughput screening
- Published 2 months ago
The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is responsible for the degradation of majority of the intracellular proteins. The fundamental importance of UPS was highlighted when Rose, Hershko, and Ciechanover were awarded the 2004 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. The alterations in this process have been shown to contribute to the cancer progression. Therefore, pharmacological targeting of the UPS can potentially provide chemotherapeutics for the treatment of tumours. The application of bortezomib proved that interfering with UPS activity could be very effective against haematological malignancies. Many compounds are being screened and evaluated in recent pharmacological advances, either as single agents or in synergy with other drugs, and more to be revealed. In this review, we present the crucial components involved in the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and discuss the current state of small molecules targeting various elements of ubiquitination in cancer treatment.