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Concept: Type


Whether light-to-moderate alcohol consumption is protective against stroke, and whether any association differs by stroke type, is controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis to summarize the evidence from prospective studies on alcohol drinking and stroke types.

Concepts: Evidence-based medicine, Systematic review, Meta-analysis, Drinking culture, Type, Seventh-day Adventist Church


There would be little adaptive value in a complex communication system like human language if there were no ways to detect and correct problems. A systematic comparison of conversation in a broad sample of the world’s languages reveals a universal system for the real-time resolution of frequent breakdowns in communication. In a sample of 12 languages of 8 language families of varied typological profiles we find a system of ‘other-initiated repair’, where the recipient of an unclear message can signal trouble and the sender can repair the original message. We find that this system is frequently used (on average about once per 1.4 minutes in any language), and that it has detailed common properties, contrary to assumptions of radical cultural variation. Unrelated languages share the same three functionally distinct types of repair initiator for signalling problems and use them in the same kinds of contexts. People prefer to choose the type that is the most specific possible, a principle that minimizes cost both for the sender being asked to fix the problem and for the dyad as a social unit. Disruption to the conversation is kept to a minimum, with the two-utterance repair sequence being on average no longer that the single utterance which is being fixed. The findings, controlled for historical relationships, situation types and other dependencies, reveal the fundamentally cooperative nature of human communication and offer support for the pragmatic universals hypothesis: while languages may vary in the organization of grammar and meaning, key systems of language use may be largely similar across cultural groups. They also provide a fresh perspective on controversies about the core properties of language, by revealing a common infrastructure for social interaction which may be the universal bedrock upon which linguistic diversity rests.

Concepts: Sociology, Linguistics, Language, Grammar, Semiotics, Type, Reason, Language family


ABSTRACT Two studies examined the effect of applicants' smiling on hireability. In a pre-test study, participants were asked to rate the expected behavior for four types of applicants. Newspaper reporter applicants were expected to be more serious than applicants for other jobs. In Study 1, participants were randomly assigned to be an applicant or interviewer for a newspaper reporting job. Smiling was negatively related to hiring, and smiling mediated the relation between applicants' motivation to make a good impression and hiring. Hiring was maximized when applicants smiled less in the middle of the interview relative to the start and end. In Study 2, participants watched Study 1 clips and were randomly assigned to believe the applicants were applying to one of four jobs. Participants rated more suitability when applicants smiled less, especially for jobs associated with a serious demeanor. This research shows that job type is an important moderator of the impact of smiling on hiring.

Concepts: Interview, TheStart, Type, Smile, Type system, Reporter, Reporting


Background:Infantile tibia vara is an acquired form of tibial deformity associated with tibial varus and internal torsion. Several methods have been described for orthotics treatment. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of orthotics treatment in infantile tibia vara.Study design:Controlled trial.Objective:The aim of this study was to compare the effect of different types of orthoses and correction methods on decreasing the curve in children with severe genu varum.Methods:Three different types of knee-ankle-foot orthoses were applied to 35 lower extremities of 22 pediatric participants who were 19-38 months of age. The same orthotic design principles were used to correct the femur, while different designs were applied to correct the tibia. The orthoses used on 20 participants were evaluated for differences among them and their effects on the treatment process. In addition, methods used in the treatment, problems encountered, production of different types of orthoses, convenience of application of the orthoses, and degree of patients satisfaction are discussed in this article.Results:The mean duration of treatment of the participants until completion of treatment was 25.3 ± 9.7 weeks with a minimum of 9 weeks and a maximum of 41 weeks. No statistically significant correlation was found between the duration of orthotic use in patients with a successful outcome and percentile height and percentile weight. When the duration of treatment using the different types of orthoses was analyzed, significant differences were found between Type 1 and Type 2, and Type 1 and Type 3 orthoses (p < 0.05), while no difference was observed between Type 2 and Type 3 orthoses (p > 0.05).Conclusion:We found that bracing is an effective form of treatment for infantile tibia vara up to 38 months of age. We conclude that full-time use of knee-ankle-foot orthoses exerting corrective forces from five points along the full length of the limb was effective.Clinical relevance:The localization of the distal tibial correction, the quality of the midtibial correction band, and the importance of the application of corrective forces from five points with rigid methods were found.

Concepts: Statistics, Effect, Statistical significance, Effectiveness, Varus deformity, Difference, Orthotics, Type


Accurate estimates of chlorophyll-a concentration (Chl-a) from remotely sensed data for inland waters are challenging due to their optical complexity. In this study, a framework of Chl-a estimation is established for optically complex inland waters based on combination of water optical classification and two semi-empirical algorithms. Three spectrally distinct water types (Type I to Type III) are first identified using a clustering method performed on remote sensing reflectance (R(rs)) from datasets containing 231 samples from Lake Taihu, Lake Chaohu, Lake Dianchi, and Three Gorges Reservoir. The classification criteria for each optical water type are subsequently defined for MERIS images based on the spectral characteristics of the three water types. The criteria cluster every R(rs) spectrum into one of the three water types by comparing the values from band 7 (central band: 665nm), band 8 (central band: 681.25nm), and band 9 (central band: 708.75nm) of MERIS images. Based on the water classification, the type-specific three-band algorithms (TBA) and type-specific advanced three-band algorithm (ATBA) are developed for each water type using the same datasets. By pre-classifying, errors are decreased for the two algorithms, with the mean absolute percent error (MAPE) of TBA decreasing from 36.5% to 23% for the calibration datasets, and from 40% to 28% for ATBA. The accuracy of the two algorithms for validation data indicates that optical classification eliminates the need to adjust the optimal locations of the three bands or to re-parameterize to estimate Chl-a for other waters. The classification criteria and the type-specific ATBA are additionally validated by two MERIS images. The framework of first classifying optical water types based on reflectance characteristics and subsequently developing type-specific algorithms for different water types is a valid scheme for reducing errors in Chl-a estimation for optically complex inland waters.

Concepts: Estimator, Optics, Water, Spectrum, Type, Mean absolute percentage error, The Band


1) Provide a critical analysis of the contemporary published research pertaining to complementary, alternative, and other non-Complete Decongestive Therapies (CDT) for treatment of lymphedema (LE); and 2) Provide practical applications of that evidence to improve care of patients with or at risk for LE. TYPE: This study meets the defining criteria as a systematic search and review since it includes varied study types. All studies that met the inclusion criteria were evaluated for weight of evidence and value.

Concepts: Medicine, Critical thinking, Therapy, Study skills, Cultural studies, Lymphedema, Type, Type system


Purpose: Recently, vascular endostapling systems were developed to achieve better sealing at the proximal neck of the aneurysm and to prevent endograft migration. The purpose of this study was to provide a systematic review about the current state and possible options of vascular endostapling systems. Results: No randomized controlled trials were published. The results showed that the use of an endostaple system considerably reduced the rates of endoleaks type 1a and endograft migration. Regarding the use of endostaples in different types of endografts, only a few results were available. Conclusion: The results are not conclusive. With endostaple systems, patients with difficult anatomic features and high risk can potentially be treated. These systems might reduce the high reintervention rates after endovascular aneurysm repair. Controlled randomized trials with larger number of patients are warranted with endostapling use in primary endograft implantation and for use in reintervention for late endoleaks or endograft migrations.

Concepts: Evidence-based medicine, Systematic review, Randomized controlled trial, Human migration, Abdominal aortic aneurysm, Type, Type system


Self-assembly of multicomponent nanocrystal superlattices provides a modular approach to the design of metamaterials by choosing constituent nanocrystal building blocks with desired physical properties and engineering the interparticle coupling. In this work, we report self-assembly of binary nanocrystal superlattices composed of magnetically hard CoFe2O4 nanocrystals and magnetically soft Fe3O4 nanocrystals. Both NaZn13- and MgZn2- type CoFe2O4-Fe3O4 binary nanocrystal superlattices have been formed by the liquid-air interfacial assembly approach. Exchange coupling is achieved in both types of binary superlattices after thermal annealing under vacuum at 400 °C. The exchange-coupled CoFe2O4-Fe3O4 binary nanocrystal superlattices show single-phase magnetization switching behavior and magnetoresistance switching behavior below 200 K. The NaZn13- type CoFe2O4-Fe3O4 binary nanocrystal superlattices annealed at 500 °C even exhibit bistable magnetoresistance switching behavior at room temperature constituting a simple non-volatile memory function.

Concepts: Temperature, Magnetism, Non-volatile memory, Type, Computer data storage, Physical property, Annealing, Computer memory


Here we report occurrence of six different morphotypes of ascaridoid type larvae from 28 species of fish collected from New Caledonian waters. The larvae were morphologically identified as Anisakis type I, Hysterothylacium type VI and new larval types XIII and XIV, Raphidascaris larval type and Terranova larval type II. Representatives of each morphotype were subjected to the amplification of the second internal transcribed spacers (ITS-2) of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and those sequences were compared with ITS-2 sequences of other ascaridoid nematodes previously deposited in GenBank. ITS-2 sequences of Anisakis larval type I were identical to those of A. typica. ITS-2 sequences of Hysterothylacium larval type VI in the present study were identical to those previously found in Eastern Australian waters. No match was found for ITS-2 sequences of Hysterothylacium larval types XIII and XIV; therefore, the specific identities of these larval types remain unclear. ITS-2 sequences of Raphidascaris larval type were identical to those of R. trichiuri, which have previously been reported in Taiwanese waters. Terranova larval type II in the present study had identical ITS-2 sequences with Terranova larval types reported from Australian waters, however, the specific identity is unknown. This taxonomic work is essential if further research on these zoonotic parasites is to be effective. This includes investigations into such aspects as life cycle studies, impacts on human health and risk assessment for their transmission to humans.

Concepts: Present, Parasites, Larva, Fish, Annelid, Type, Type system, Caledonia


Quality of life after anterior or total exenteration is determined, among other factors, by the type of urinary diversion. There are two different types of urinary diversion: incontinent diversion (ureterocutaneostomy, ileal conduit, and colonic conduit) and continent diversions (continent cutaneous pouch, orthotopic neobladder, and rectal reservoir).

Concepts: Digestive system, Type, Bricker end-to-side anastomosis