SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Tuple

113

Many brain regions have been defined, but a comprehensive formalization of each region’s function in relation to human behavior is still lacking. Current knowledge comes from various fields, which have diverse conceptions of ‘functions’. We briefly review these fields and outline how the heterogeneity of associations could be harnessed to disclose the computational function of any region. Aggregating activation data from neuroimaging studies allows us to characterize the functional engagement of a region across a range of experimental conditions. Furthermore, large-sample data can disclose covariation between brain region features and ecological behavioral phenotyping. Combining these two approaches opens a new perspective to determine the behavioral associations of a brain region, and hence its function and broader role within large-scale functional networks.

Concepts: Psychology, Human brain, Cerebrum, Behavior, Motivation, Human behavior, Lambda calculus, Tuple

50

Principles of lean office management increasingly call for space to be stripped of extraneous decorations so that it can flexibly accommodate changing numbers of people and different office functions within the same area. Yet this practice is at odds with evidence that office workers' quality of life can be enriched by office landscaping that involves the use of plants that have no formal work-related function. To examine the impact of these competing approaches, 3 field experiments were conducted in large commercial offices in The Netherlands and the U.K. These examined the impact of lean and “green” offices on subjective perceptions of air quality, concentration, and workplace satisfaction as well as objective measures of productivity. Two studies were longitudinal, examining effects of interventions over subsequent weeks and months. In all 3 experiments enhanced outcomes were observed when offices were enriched by plants. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record © 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

Concepts: Experimental design, Function, Management, Netherlands, All rights reserved, Tuple, Office, Cubicle

29

Developmental science is replete with studies on the impact of mothers on their children, but little is known about what might best help caregivers to function well themselves. In an initial effort to address this gap, we conducted an Internet-based study of over 2,000 mostly well-educated mothers, seeking to illuminate salient risk and protective processes associated with their personal well-being. When women’s feelings in the parenting role were considered along with dimensions of personal support as predictors, the latter set explained at least as much variance-and often much more-across dimensions of mothers' personal well-being. Within the latter set of personal support predictors, findings showed that 4 had particularly robust links with mothers' personal adjustment: their feeling unconditionally loved, feeling comforted when in distress, authenticity in relationships, and satisfaction with friendships. Partner satisfaction had some associations with personal adjustment outcomes, but being married in itself had negligible effects. Findings are discussed in terms of implications for future research, and for interventions aimed at fostering resilience among mothers facing high level of stress in their role as parents. (PsycINFO Database Record

Concepts: Family, Psychology, Parent, Interpersonal relationship, Mother, Love, Feeling, Tuple

28

Purpose: Within supervised rehabilitation programs, Lent and Lopez (2002) proposed that clients and therapists develop a “tripartite” network of efficacy beliefs, comprising their confidence in their own ability, their confidence in the other person’s ability, and their estimation of the other person’s confidence in them. To date, researchers have yet to explore the potential relational outcomes associated with this model in rehabilitation contexts. Method: In Study 1, we recruited 170 exercise clients (Mage = 63.73, SD = 6.46) who were enrolled in a one-to-one aerobic exercise program with a therapist as a result of a lower-limb musculoskeletal disorder. Clients reported their tripartite efficacy beliefs and perceptions about the quality of their relationship with their therapist, and respective therapists rated each client’s engagement in his or her exercise program. In Study 2, we recruited 68 separate exercise clients (Mage = 65.93, SD = 5.80) along with their therapists (n = 68, Mage = 31.89, SD = 4.79) from the same program, to examine whether individuals' efficacy perceptions were related to their own and/or the other person’s relationship quality perceptions. Results: In Study 1, each of the tripartite efficacy constructs displayed positive direct effects with respect to clients' relationship quality appraisals, as well as indirect effects in relation to program engagement. Actor-partner interdependence modeling in Study 2 demonstrated that clients and therapists reported more adaptive relationship perceptions when they themselves held strong tripartite efficacy beliefs (i.e., actor effects), and that clients viewed their relationship in a more positive light when their therapist was highly confident in the client’s ability (i.e., partner effect). Conclusion: These findings underscore the potential utility of the tripartite efficacy framework in relation to motivational and relational processes within supervised exercise programs. (PsycINFO Database Record © 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

Concepts: Effectiveness, Strength training, All rights reserved, Aerobic exercise, Tuple, Psychoanalysis, Relational database, Rehabilitation counseling

27

It is almost a truism that language aids serial-order control through self-cuing of upcoming sequential elements. We measured speech onset latencies as subjects performed hierarchically organized task sequences while “thinking aloud” each task label. Surprisingly, speech onset latencies and response times (RTs) were highly synchronized, a pattern that is not consistent with the hypothesis that speaking aids proactive retrieval of upcoming sequential elements during serial-order control. We also found that when instructed to do so, subjects were able to speak task labels prior to presentation of response-relevant stimuli and that this substantially reduced RT signatures of retrieval-however, at the cost of more sequencing errors. Thus, while proactive retrieval is possible in principle, in natural situations it seems to be prevented through a strong “gestalt-like” tendency to synchronize speech and action. We suggest that this tendency may support context updating rather than proactive control. (PsycINFO Database Record © 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

Concepts: Mathematics, Management, Language, Sequence, All rights reserved, Tuple, Speech, Geometric progression

25

In recognition memory, recollection is defined as retrieval of the context associated with an event, whereas familiarity is defined as retrieval based on item strength alone. Recent studies have shown that conventional recollection-based tasks, in which context details are manipulated for source memory assessment at test, can also rely on familiarity when context information is “unitized” with the relevant item information at encoding. Unlike naturalistic episodic memories that include many context details encoded in different ways simultaneously, previous studies have focused on unitization and its effect on the recognition of a single context detail. To further understand how various encoding strategies operate on item and context representations, we independently assigned unitization and relational association to 2 context details (size and color) of each item and tested the contribution of recollection and familiarity to source recognition of each detail. The influence of familiarity on retrieval of each context detail was compared as a function of the encoding strategy used for each detail. Receiver operating characteristic curves suggested that the unitization effect was not additive and that similar levels of familiarity occurred for 1 or multiple details when unitization was the only strategy applied during encoding. On the other hand, a detrimental effect was found when relational encoding and unitization were simultaneously applied to 1 item such that a salient nonunitized context detail interfered with the effortful processing required to unitize an accompanying context detail. However, this detrimental effect was not reciprocal and possibly dependent on the nature of individual context details. (PsycINFO Database Record

Concepts: Memory, Hippocampus, Receiver operating characteristic, Episodic memory, Procedural memory, Amnesia, Semantic memory, Tuple

23

Working memory (WM) enables a rapid access to a limited number of items that are no longer physically present. WM studies usually involve the encoding and retention of multiple items, while probing a single item only. Hence, little is known about how well multiple items can be reported from WM. Here we asked participants to successively report each of up to 8 encoded Gabor patches from WM. Recall order was externally cued, and stimulus orientations had to be reproduced on a continuous dimension. Participants were able to sequentially report items from WM with an above-chance precision even at high set sizes. It is important that we observed that precision varied systematically with report order: It dropped steeply from the first to the second report but decreased only slightly thereafter. The observed trajectory of precision decrease across reports was better captured as a discontinuous rather than an exponential function, suggesting that items were reported from different states in visual WM. The following 3 experiments replicated these findings. In particular, they showed that the observed drop could not be explained by a retro-cueing benefit of the first report, a longer delay duration for later reports or a visual interference effect of the first report. Instead, executive interference of the first report reduced precision of subsequent reports. Together, the results show that a sequential whole-report procedure allows the assessment of qualitatively different states in visual WM. (PsycINFO Database Record

Concepts: Report, Mathematical analysis, Sequence, Real number, Derivative, Working memory, Tuple, Encodings

16

Human language is composed of sequences of reusable elements. The origins of the sequential structure of language is a hotly debated topic in evolutionary linguistics. In this paper, we show that sets of sequences with language-like statistical properties can emerge from a process of cultural evolution under pressure from chunk-based memory constraints. We employ a novel experimental task that is non-linguistic and non-communicative in nature, in which participants are trained on and later asked to recall a set of sequences one-by-one. Recalled sequences from one participant become training data for the next participant. In this way, we simulate cultural evolution in the laboratory. Our results show a cumulative increase in structure, and by comparing this structure to data from existing linguistic corpora, we demonstrate a close parallel between the sets of sequences that emerge in our experiment and those seen in natural language.

Concepts: Linguistics, Language, Sequence, Anthropology, Set, Tuple, Monoid, August Schleicher

14

We investigated the effect of short interruptions on performance of a task that required participants to maintain their place in a sequence of steps each with their own performance requirements. Interruptions averaging 4.4 s long tripled the rate of sequence errors on post-interruption trials relative to baseline trials. Interruptions averaging 2.8 s long-about the time to perform a step in the interrupted task-doubled the rate of sequence errors. Nonsequence errors showed no interruption effects, suggesting that global attentional processes were not disrupted. Response latencies showed smaller interruption effects than sequence errors, a difference we interpret in terms of high levels of interference generated by the primary task. The results are consistent with an account in which activation spreading from the focus of attention allows control processes to navigate task-relevant representations and in which momentary interruptions are disruptive because they shift the focus and thereby cut off the flow. (PsycINFO Database Record © 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

Concepts: Attention, Effect, Performance, All rights reserved, Focus, Tuple, Requirement, Interrupt

12

Although researchers predominately test for linear relationships between variables, at times there may be theoretical and even empirical reasons for expecting nonlinear functions. We examined if the relation between intelligence (IQ) and perceived leadership might be more accurately described by a curvilinear single-peaked function. Following Simonton’s (1985) theory, we tested a specific model, indicating that the optimal IQ for perceived leadership will appear at about 1.2 standard deviations above the mean IQ of the group membership. The sample consisted of midlevel leaders from multinational private-sector companies. We used the leaders' scores on the Wonderlic Personnel Test (WPT)-a measure of IQ-to predict how they would be perceived on prototypically effective leadership (i.e., transformational and instrumental leadership). Accounting for the effects of leader personality, gender, age, as well as company, country, and time fixed effects, analyses indicated that perceptions of leadership followed a curvilinear inverted-U function of intelligence. The peak of this function was at an IQ score of about 120, which did not depart significantly from the value predicted by the theory. As the first direct empirical test of a precise curvilinear model of the intelligence-leadership relation, the results have important implications for future research on how leaders are perceived in the workplace. (PsycINFO Database Record

Concepts: Scientific method, Psychology, Effectiveness, Psychometrics, Standard deviation, Leadership, Intelligence quotient, Tuple