Concept: Trigonometric functions
The aim of this study was to report the trends in provision of cholecystectomy in the National Health System in England over the 9 year period from 2000 to 2009 and to determine the major risk factors associated with subsequent poor outcome.
Further to reports of a reciprocal relationship between sugar and fat intakes, this review aimed to provide an in-depth analysis and to determine the likely influence of this relationship on the achievement of population dietary guidelines. Using systematic methods, relevant literature was selected according to preset criteria. A strong and consistent inverse association was found between total sugars and total fat intakes expressed as percentage energy. Fewer studies considered absolute intakes and these reported a positive relationship, which may be influenced by confounding with energy intakes. Evidence for an inverse relationship between percentage energy from fat and extrinsic sugars was weaker and less consistent than for fat and total sugars. Reciprocal relationships were also observed for sugar-saturated fat, sugar-protein, sugar-alcohol, and sugar-starch expressed as percentage energy. Under-reporting of dietary intakes had no major influence on the findings. This review confirms the existence of the sugar-fat seesaw on a percentage energy basis and concludes that it is most likely explained by a combination of mathematical and food compositional effects. This finding is relevant because dietary guidelines are expressed as percentage energy and implies that at the population level multiple guidelines may be difficult to achieve in practice.
To evaluate short-term effects of publishing revised lower risk national drinking guidelines on related awareness and knowledge. To examine where drinkers heard about guidelines over the same period.
Policy decisions about opt-in and opt-out consent for organ donation are based on limited evidence. To fill this gap we investigated the difference between deceased and living organ donation rates in opt-in and opt-out consent systems across a 13 year period. We controlled for extensive covariates and estimated the causal effect of consent with instrumental variables analysis.
In the Kondo insulator samarium hexaboride (SmB6), strong correlation and band hybridization lead to an insulating gap and a diverging resistance at low temperature. The resistance divergence ends at about 3 kelvin, a behavior that may arise from surface conductance. We used torque magnetometry to resolve the Fermi surface topology in this material. The observed oscillation patterns reveal two Fermi surfaces on the (100) surface plane and one Fermi surface on the (101) surface plane. The measured Fermi surface cross sections scale as the inverse cosine function of the magnetic field tilt angles, which demonstrates the two-dimensional nature of the conducting electronic states of SmB6.
Opioid use in pregnancy is increasing globally. In northwest Ontario, rates of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) are alarmingly high. We sought to document the increasing rates of opioid exposure during pregnancy and associated cases of NAS over a 7-year period in northwest Ontario.
Changes in pupil size and shape are relevant for peripheral imagery by affecting aberrations and how much light enters and/or exits the eye. The purpose of this study is to model the pattern of pupil shape across the complete horizontal visual field and to show how the pattern is influenced by refractive error. Right eyes of 30 participants were dilated with 1% cyclopentolate, and images were captured using a modified COAS-HD aberrometer alignment camera along the horizontal visual field to ±90°. A two-lens relay system enabled fixation at targets mounted on the wall 3 m from the eye. Participants placed their heads on a rotatable chin rest, and eye rotations were kept to less than 30°. Best-fit elliptical dimensions of pupils were determined. Ratios of minimum to maximum axis diameters were plotted against visual field angle. Participants' data were well fitted by cosine functions with maxima at (-)1° to (-)9° in the temporal visual field and widths 9% to 15% greater than predicted by the cosine of the field angle . Mean functions were 0.99 cos([ + 5.3]/1.121), R(2) 0.99 for the whole group and 0.99 cos([ + 6.2]/1.126), R(2) 0.99 for the 13 emmetropes. The function peak became less temporal and the width became smaller with increase in myopia. Off-axis pupil shape changes are well described by a cosine function that is both decentered by a few degrees and flatter by about 12% than the cosine of the viewing angle, with minor influences of refraction.
Reliable data are necessary if the burden of early readmissions following hospitalization for heart failure (HF) is to be addressed. We studied unplanned 30-day readmissions, their causes and timing over an 11-year period, using population-based linked data.
To report an analysis of the concept of vulnerability associated with pregnancy, birth and the postnatal period.
The compression of morbidity model posits a breakpoint in the adult lifespan that separates an initial period of relative health from a subsequent period of ever increasing morbidity. Researchers often assume that such a breakpoint exists; however, this assumption is hitherto untested.