Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Treat Williams


Various trials have been conducted on the management and treatment of androgenic alopecia (AGA) or male pattern hair loss using a variety of laser and light sources.

Concepts: Light, Laser, 2000s music groups, Alopecia, Baldness, Androgenic alopecia, Treat Williams


A once-daily minoxidil topical foam (MTF) has been developed to treat female pattern hair loss.
OBJECTIVE: Determine noninferiority of once-daily 5% MTF versus twice-daily 2% minoxidil topical solution (MTS) based on the change from baseline in target area hair count (TAHC) at 24 weeks.

Concepts: Phase, Topical, Treat Williams, Minoxidil


Yttrium-90 (90Y) radioembolization involves the intra-arterial delivery of radioactive microspheres to treat hepatic malignancies. Though this therapy involves careful pre-treatment planning and imaging, little is known about the precise location of the microspheres once they are administered. Recently, there has been growing interest post-radioembolization imaging using positron-emission tomography (PET) for quantitative dosimetry and identifying lesions that may benefit from additional salvage therapy. In this study, we aim to measure the inter-center variability of90Y PET measurements as measured on PET/MRI in preparation for a multi-institutional prospective phase I/II clinical trial. Eight institutions participated in this study and followed a standardized phantom filling and imaging protocol. The NEMA NU2-2012 body phantom was filled with 3 GBq of90Y chloride solution. The phantom was imaged for 30 min in listmode on a Siemens Biograph mMR non-TOF PET/MRI scanner at five time points across 10 days (0.3-3.0 GBq). Raw PET data were sent to a central site for image reconstruction and data analysis. Images were reconstructed with optimal parameters determined from a previous study. Volumes of interest (VOIs) matching the known sphere diameters were drawn on the vendor-provided attenuation map and propagated to the PET images. Recovery coefficients (RCs) and coefficient of variation of the RCs (COV) were calculated from these VOIs for each sphere size and activity level.

Concepts: Measurement, Sociology, IMAGE, Phantom, Coefficient, Multiplication, Treat Williams


Calculus migration is a common problem during ureteroscopic laser lithotripsy procedure to treat urolithiasis. A conventional experimental method to characterize calculus migration utilized a hosting container (e.g., a “V” grove or a test tube). These methods, however, demonstrated large variation and poor detectability, possibly attributed to the friction between the calculus and the container on which the calculus was situated. In this study, calculus migration was investigated using a pendulum model suspended underwater to eliminate the aforementioned friction. A high-speed camera was used to study the movement of the calculus which covered zero order (displacement), first order (speed), and second order (acceleration). A commercialized, pulsed Ho:YAG laser at 2.1 μm, a 365-μm core diameter fiber, and a calculus phantom (Plaster of Paris, 10 × 10 × 10 mm(3)) was utilized to mimic laser lithotripsy procedure. The phantom was hung on a stainless steel bar and irradiated by the laser at 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 J energy per pulse at 10 Hz for 1 s (i.e., 5, 10, and 15 W). Movement of the phantom was recorded by a high-speed camera with a frame rate of 10,000 FPS. The video data files are analyzed by MATLAB program by processing each image frame and obtaining position data of the calculus. With a sample size of 10, the maximum displacement was 1.25 ± 0.10, 3.01 ± 0.52, and 4.37 ± 0.58 mm for 0.5, 1, and 1.5 J energy per pulse, respectively. Using the same laser power, the conventional method showed <0.5 mm total displacement. When reducing the phantom size to 5 × 5 × 5 mm(3) (one eighth in volume), the displacement was very inconsistent. The results suggested that using the pendulum model to eliminate the friction improved sensitivity and repeatability of the experiment. A detailed investigation on calculus movement and other causes of experimental variation will be conducted as a future study.

Concepts: Science, Experiment, Classical mechanics, Object-oriented programming, Kidney stone, Rate equation, Pendulum, Treat Williams


Treatment options for hair disorders are generally very limited. These options are even more limited in children due to the lack of trials and clinical research. Moreover, physicians are sometimes scared to treat children with drugs without safety data, especially because most hair disorders are benign.

Concepts: Medicine, Clinical trial, Clinical research, Alopecia areata, Treat Williams


Aims: Radiofrequency renal artery denervation has been used effectively to treat resistant hypertension. However, comparison of lesion and thermodynamic characteristics for different systems has not been previously described. We aimed to assess spatiotemporal lesion growth and ablation characteristics of Symplicity and EnligHTN systems. Methods and results: A total of 39 ablations were performed in a phantom renal artery model using Symplicity (n=17) and EnligHTN (n=22) systems. The phantom model consisted of a hollowed gel block surrounding a thermochromic liquid crystal (TLC) film, exhibiting temperature sensitivity of 50-78°C. Flow was simulated using 37°C normal saline with impedance equal to blood. Radiofrequency ablations with each system were delivered with direct electrode tip contact to the TLC. Lesion size was interpreted from the TLC as the maximum dimensions of the 51°C isotherm. Mean lesion depth was 3.82 mm±0.04 versus 3.44 mm±0.03 (p<0.001) for Symplicity and EnligHTN, respectively. Mean width was 7.17 mm±0.08 versus 6.23 mm±0.07 (p<0.001), respectively. With EnligHTN, steady state temperature was achieved 20 sec earlier, and was 15°C higher than Symplicity. Conclusions: In this phantom model, Symplicity formed larger lesions compared to EnligHTN with lower catheter-tip temperature. The clinical significance of our findings needs to be explored further.

Concepts: Blood pressure, Temperature, Thermodynamics, Liquid, System, Steady state, Dynamic equilibrium, Treat Williams


Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb. extract is a 5α-reductase antagonist that can be used to treat hair loss. We aimed to study the stability of antiandrogenic constituents, germacrone and other sesquiterpene components in the extract.

Concepts: Cultural studies, Curcuma, Treat Williams


LEARNING OBJECTIVES:: After reading this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Discuss the options for reconstruction of scalp, skull, orbit, and maxilla defects. 2. Describe the core principles to obtaining a sound result. SUMMARY:: Orbitomaxillary, skull, scalp, and hair restoration covers a broad segment of reconstructive surgery. The purpose of this article is to review considerations in available options for reconstruction, flap selection, relevant anatomy, and potential hazards. Although there are a variety of methods available to treat these complex defects, core principles are presented as a guide to obtaining a sound result specific to the priorities appropriate to an individual patient.

Concepts: Surgery, Plastic surgery, Reconstructive surgery, The Core, Scalp, Follicular unit transplantation, Treat Williams