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Concept: Tread


Tires are a key sub-system of vehicles that have a big responsibility for comfort, fuel consumption and traffic safety. However, current tires are just passive rubber elements which do not contribute actively to improve the driving experience or vehicle safety. The lack of information from the tire during driving gives cause for developing an intelligent tire. Therefore, the aim of the intelligent tire is to monitor tire working conditions in real-time, providing useful information to other systems and becoming an active system. In this paper, tire tread deformation is measured to provide a strong experimental base with different experiments and test results by means of a tire fitted with sensors. Tests under different working conditions such as vertical load or slip angle have been carried out with an indoor tire test rig. The experimental data analysis shows the strong relation that exists between lateral force and the maximum tensile and compressive strain peaks when the tire is not working at the limit of grip. In the last section, an estimation system from experimental data has been developed and implemented in Simulink to show the potential of strain sensors for developing intelligent tire systems, obtaining as major results a signal to detect tire’s loss of grip and estimations of the lateral friction coefficient.

Concepts: Statistics, Data, Force, Test method, Estimation, Slip, Tire, Tread


Rolling resistance ranks among the top ten automobile megatrends, because it is directly linked to fuel efficiency and emissions reduction. The mechanisms controlling this phenomenon are hidden deeply inside the complexity of tire tread materials and do elude direct experimental observation. Here we use atomistic molecular modelling to identify a novel nano-mechanical mechanism for dissipative loss in silica filled elastomers when the latter are subjected to dynamic strain. The force-vs-particle separation curve of a single silica particle-to-silica particle contact, embedded inside a polyisoprene rubber matrix, is obtained, while the contact is opened and closed by a cyclic force. We confirm the occurrence of spontaneous relative displacements (‘jolts’) of the filler particles. These jolts give rise to energy dissipation in addition to the usual viscous loss in the polymer matrix. As the temperature is increased the new loss mechanism becomes dominant. This has important technical implications for the control and reduction of tire rolling resistance as well as for many other elastomer composite applications involving dynamic loading.

Concepts: Fundamental physics concepts, Polymer, Thermodynamics, Synthetic rubber, Dissipation, Energy conservation, Tread, Low-rolling resistance tires


This article describes a method of fabricating a labial reduction guide for laminate veneer preparations by using a digital tire tread depth gauge and orthodontic wire. The labial reduction guide can help clinicians to achieve accurate reduction of the labial surface.

Concepts: Tire, Tread, Diving equipment, Depth gauge


Impacts of surface runoff to aquatic species are an ongoing area of concern. Tire and road wear particles (TRWP) are a constituent of runoff, and determining accurate TRWP concentrations in sediment is necessary in order to evaluate the likelihood that these particles present a risk to the aquatic environment. TRWP consist of approximately equal mass fractions of tire tread rubber and road surface mineral encrustations. Sampling was completed in the Seine (France), Chesapeake (U.S.), and Yodo-Lake Biwa (Japan) watersheds to quantify TRWP in the surficial sediment of watersheds characterized by a wide diversity of population densities and land uses. By using a novel quantitative pyrolysis-GC/MS analysis for rubber polymer, we detected TRWP in 97% of the 149 sediment samples collected. The mean concentrations of TRWP were 4500 (n = 49; range = 62-11 600), 910 (n = 50; range = 50-4400) and 770 (n = 50; range = 26-4600) μg/g d.w. for the characterized portions of the Seine, Chesapeake and Yodo-Lake Biwa watersheds, respectively. A subset of samples from the watersheds (n = 45) was pooled to evaluate TRWP metals, grain size and organic carbon correlations by principal components analysis (PCA), which indicated that four components explain 90% of the variance. The PCA components appeared to correspond to (1) metal alloys possibly from brake wear (primarily Cu, Pb, Zn), (2) crustal minerals (primarily Al, V, Fe), (3) metals mediated by microbial immobilization (primarily Co, Mn, Fe with TOC), and (4) TRWP and other particulate deposition (primarily TRWP with grain size and TOC). This study should provide useful information for assessing potential aquatic effects related to tire service life.

Concepts: Water, Water pollution, Copper, Erosion, Alloy, France, Turbidity, Tread


Tire traces can be observed on several crime scenes as vehicles are often used by criminals. The tread abrasion on the road, while braking or skidding, leads to the production of small rubber particles which can be collected for comparison purposes. This research focused on the statistical comparison of Py-GC/MS profiles of tire traces and tire treads. The optimisation of the analytical method was carried out using experimental designs. The aim was to determine the best pyrolysis parameters regarding the repeatability of the results. Thus, the pyrolysis factor effect could also be calculated. The pyrolysis temperature was found to be five time more important than time. Finally, a pyrolysis at 650°C during 15s was selected. Ten tires of different manufacturers and models were used for this study. Several samples were collected on each tire, and several replicates were carried out to study the variability within each tire (intravariability). More than eighty compounds were integrated for each analysis and the variability study showed that more than 75% presented a relative standard deviation (RSD) below 5% for the ten tires, thus supporting a low intravariability. The variability between the ten tires (intervariability) presented higher values and the ten most variant compounds had a RSD value above 13%, supporting their high potential of discrimination between the tires tested. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was able to fully discriminate the ten tires with the help of the first three principal components. The ten tires were finally used to perform braking tests on a racetrack with a vehicle equipped with an anti-lock braking system. The resulting tire traces were adequately collected using sheets of white gelatine. As for tires, the intravariability for the traces was found to be lower than the intervariability. Clustering methods were carried out and the Ward’s method based on the squared Euclidean distance was able to correctly group all of the tire traces replicates in the same cluster than the replicates of their corresponding tire. Blind tests on traces were performed and were correctly assigned to their tire source. These results support the hypothesis that the tested tires, of different manufacturers and models, can be discriminated by a statistical comparison of their chemical profiles. The traces were found to be not differentiable from their source but differentiable from all the other tires present in the subset. The results are promising and will be extended on a larger sample set.

Concepts: Factor analysis, Principal component analysis, Singular value decomposition, Discrimination, Racial discrimination, Vehicle, Automobile, Tread


We have measured the surface topography and calculated the surface roughness power spectrum for an asphalt road surface. For the same surface we have measured the friction for a tire tread compound for velocities 10(-6) m s(-1) < v < 10(-3) m s(-1) at three different temperatures (at -8 °C, 20 °C and 48 °C). The friction data was shifted using the bulk viscoelasticity shift factor a(T) to form a master curve. We have measured the effective rubber viscoelastic modulus at large strain and calculated the rubber friction coefficient (and contact area) during stationary sliding and compared it to the measured friction coefficient. We find that for the low velocities and for the relatively smooth road surface we consider, the contribution to friction from the area of real contact is very important, and we interpret this contribution as being due to shearing of a very thin confined rubber smear film.

Concepts: Continuum mechanics, Force, Differential geometry, Friction, Road, Roughness, Tarmac, Tread