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Concept: Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization

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Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) is the most widely used treatment option for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Elevated serum YKL-40 level has been shown to predict poor prognosis in HCC patients undergoing resection. This study was designed to validate the prognostic significance of serum YKL-40 in patients with HCC undergoing TACE treatment.

Concepts: Lung cancer, Medical terms, Hepatocellular carcinoma, Hepatology, Radiology, Prognosis, Thought experiment, Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization

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To assess the technical safety and efficacy of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) combined with immediate radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for large hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) (maximum diameter ≥ 5 cm).

Concepts: Hepatocellular carcinoma, Hepatology, Radiology, Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization, Radiofrequency ablation

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To evaluate the local tumor control and survival data after transarterial chemoembolization with different drug combinations in the palliative treatment of patients with liver metastases of gastric cancer.

Concepts: Cancer, Metastasis, Oncology, Chemotherapy, Palliative care, Stomach, Stomach cancer, Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization

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Purpose:To compare the time to progression (TTP) and overall survival (OS) in patients with advanced-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who are undergoing sorafenib treatment combined with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) versus sorafenib monotherapy.Materials and Methods:The retrospective analysis of the data was approved by the institutional review board, and the requirement to obtain informed consent was waived. Of 355 patients with advanced-stage HCC (Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage C) who were undergoing sorafenib therapy for at least 5 weeks between April 2007 and July 2011, 164 (46.2%) underwent repeat TACE (or chemolipiodolization if indicated) along with sorafenib therapy (combined group); the remaining 191 patients (53.8%) received sorafenib alone (monotherapy group). The median patient age was 53 years (range, 22-84 years). The median age was 53 years (range, 26-84 years) for men and 56 years (range, 22-75 years) for women. Propensity score-based methods were used to minimize bias when evaluating TTP on the basis of modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors and OS. Statistical analysis was performed with the Kaplan-Meier method by using the log-rank test and Cox regression models.Results:In the combined and monotherapy groups, respectively, 64.6% and 49.2% of patients had vascular invasion, 87.8% and 91.1% had extrahepatic metastasis, and 54.3% and 47.1% had both. During follow-up (median duration, 5.5 months), the median TTP and OS in the combined group were longer than those in the monotherapy group (TTP: 2.5 months vs 2.1 months, respectively, P = .008; OS: 8.9 months vs 5.9 months, P = .009). At univariate and subsequent multivariate analyses, additional TACE was an independent predictor of favorable TTP and OS (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.74 and 0.57, respectively; P < .05 for both), consistent with the outcomes of inverse probability of treatment weighting. In the propensity score-matched cohort (96 pairs), the median TTP in the combined group was significantly longer than that in the monotherapy group (2.7 months vs 2.1 months, respectively; P = .011), but median OS was not (9.1 months vs 6.7 months, P = .21).Conclusion:In this retrospective study, TACE plus sorafenib was superior to sorafenib alone with respect to TTP in patients with advanced-stage HCC, although it may or may not improve OS.© RSNA, 2013Supplemental material: http://radiology.rsna.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1148/radiol.13130150/-/DC1.

Concepts: Cancer, Oncology, Survival analysis, Informed consent, Hepatocellular carcinoma, Multivariate statistics, Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization, Sorafenib

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The hepatoma arterial-embolization prognostic (HAP) score predicts survival outcome in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treated with trans-arterial chemoembolization (TACE). We validated the HAP score in Korean subjects with HCC and investigated whether its prognostic performance is improved with additional parameters.

Concepts: Cancer, Improve, Hepatocellular carcinoma, Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization

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To perform a meta-analysis examining the efficacy of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) alone or in combination with radiofrequency ablation (RFA), percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI), or high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

Concepts: Medical terms, Hepatocellular carcinoma, Hepatology, Radiology, Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization, Radiofrequency ablation

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Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is recommended for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage B. However, because of the heterogeneity of HCC in BCLC stage B; various subclassification systems have been proposed to predict the prognosis of patients. Previously, we proposed the Kinki criteria for precise classification of HCC cases in BCLC stage B. In this study, we compared the time to TACE refractoriness in HCC patients with Kinki criteria substages B1 and B2-HCC.

Concepts: Cancer, Cancer staging, Cirrhosis, Hepatocellular carcinoma, Hepatology, Radiology, Hepatitis C, Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization

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Purpose To compare currently available non-three-dimensional methods (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors [RECIST], European Association for Study of the Liver [EASL], modified RECIST [mRECIST[) with three-dimensional (3D) quantitative methods of the index tumor as early response markers in predicting patient survival after initial transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE). Materials and Methods This was a retrospective single-institution HIPAA-compliant and institutional review board-approved study. From November 2001 to November 2008, 491 consecutive patients underwent intraarterial therapy for liver cancer with either conventional TACE or TACE with drug-eluting beads. A diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was made in 290 of these patients. The response of the index tumor on pre- and post-TACE magnetic resonance images was assessed retrospectively in 78 treatment-naïve patients with HCC (63 male; mean age, 63 years ± 11 [standard deviation]). Each response assessment method (RECIST, mRECIST, EASL, and 3D methods of volumetric RECIST [vRECIST] and quantitative EASL [qEASL]) was used to classify patients as responders or nonresponders by following standard guidelines for the uni- and bidimensional measurements and by using the formula for a sphere for the 3D measurements. The Kaplan-Meier method with the log-rank test was performed for each method to evaluate its ability to help predict survival of responders and nonresponders. Uni- and multivariate Cox proportional hazard ratio models were used to identify covariates that had significant association with survival. Results The uni- and bidimensional measurements of RECIST (hazard ratio, 0.6; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.3, 1.0; P = .09), mRECIST (hazard ratio, 0.6; 95% CI: 0.6, 1.0; P = .05), and EASL (hazard ratio, 1.1; 95% CI: 0.6, 2.2; P = .75) did not show a significant difference in survival between responders and nonresponders, whereas vRECIST (hazard ratio, 0.6; 95% CI: 0.3, 1.0; P = .04), qEASL (Vol) (hazard ratio, 0.5; 95% CI: 0.3, 0.9; P = .02), and qEASL (%) (hazard ratio, 0.3; 95% CI: 0.15, 0.60; P < .001) did show a significant difference between these groups. Conclusion The 3D-based imaging biomarkers qEASL and vRECIST were tumor response criteria that could be used to predict patient survival early after initial TACE and enabled clear identification of nonresponders. (©) RSNA, 2015.

Concepts: Scientific method, Cancer, Oncology, Hepatocellular carcinoma, Tumor, Neoplasm, Hepatology, Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization

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Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma showing macroscopic vascular invasion have a poor prognosis. Sorafenib is the sole treatment option for these patients, with unsatisfactory response and survival benefit. Combined treatment with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) plus external beam radiotherapy (RT) has shown promising results for these patients in observational studies.

Concepts: Experimental design, Clinical trial, Cancer, Randomized controlled trial, Hepatocellular carcinoma, Pharmaceutical industry, Clinical research, Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization

1

Intermediate stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) comprises the largest subgroup of patients with this disease and is characterized by substantial heterogeneity. Functional liver impairment, total tumour burden and other prognostic factors such as high alpha-fetoprotein serum level, presence of micro-vascular invasion, and poorly differentiated tumours relevantly contribute to outcome. The usage of the standard therapeutic approach, transarterial chemoembolization - TACE, for all intermediate stage HCC patients is probably an over-simplification and may therefore not be appropriate for all patients. Particularly patients with extensive tumour bulk, multi-nodular spread or impaired liver function may not be optimal TACE candidates and other treatments can be considered as first-line treatment including surgery, percutaneous ablation, radioembolization or systemic treatment. In addition, patients not achieving complete or at least partial necrosis (TACE failure) and patients with early recurrence after TACE should be managed individually, taking systemic treatment into account, which usually is reserved for advanced cases. In selected cases and particularly in patients receiving significant downstaging from TACE or combined treatments, radical approaches such as hepatic resection or even liver transplantation can be considered. Clearly, hepatic resection in intermediate stage will not give the same results as for optimal candidates in early stage but in some patients may give a survival benefit over TACE. Likewise, liver transplantation in patients exceeding the Milan criteria will result in poorer outcome compared to early stage; in oncological terms, however, the patient likely will benefit compared to other treatment options, even in the case of recurrence. This benefit, however, will have to be weighted against the shortage of organs and the prognosis of non-tumour bearing patients on the waiting list and is in most countries regulated by respective authorities. In addition, it is likely to see more results on other therapeutic options such as radioembolization and external radiotherapy for intermediate stage HCC in the near future.

Concepts: Cancer, Oncology, Cirrhosis, Liver, Hepatocellular carcinoma, Hepatology, Liver transplantation, Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization