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Concept: Trans fat

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BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that dietary patterns are associated with future risk of depressive symptoms. However, there is a paucity of prospective data that have examined the temporality of this relation. OBJECTIVE: We examined whether adherence to a healthy diet, as defined by using the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), was prospectively associated with depressive symptoms assessed over a 5-y period. DESIGN: Analyses were based on 4215 participants in the Whitehall II Study. AHEI scores were computed in 1991-1993 and 2003-2004. Recurrent depressive symptoms were defined as having a Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale score ≥16 or self-reported use of antidepressants in 2003-2004 and 2008-2009. RESULTS: After adjustment for potential confounders, the AHEI score was inversely associated with recurrent depressive symptoms in a dose-response fashion in women (P-trend < 0.001; for 1 SD in AHEI score; OR: 0.59; 95% CI: 0.47, 0.75) but not in men. Women who maintained high AHEI scores or improved their scores during the 10-y measurement period had 65% (OR: 0.35%; 95% CI: 0.19%, 0.64%) and 68% (OR: 0.32%; 95% CI: 0.13%, 0.78%) lower odds of subsequent recurrent depressive symptoms than did women who maintained low AHEI scores. Among AHEI components, vegetable, fruit, trans fat, and the ratio of polyunsaturated fat to saturated fat components were associated with recurrent depressive symptoms in women. CONCLUSION: In the current study, there was a suggestion that poor diet is a risk factor for future depression in women.

Concepts: Health, Epidemiology, Nutrition, Saturated fat, Trans fat, Unsaturated fat, Polyunsaturated fat, Whitehall Study

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Effects of major dietary macronutrients on glucose-insulin homeostasis remain controversial and may vary by the clinical measures examined. We aimed to assess how saturated fat (SFA), monounsaturated fat (MUFA), polyunsaturated fat (PUFA), and carbohydrate affect key metrics of glucose-insulin homeostasis.

Concepts: Nutrition, Fatty acids, Saturated fat, Lipids, Trans fat, Unsaturated fat, Polyunsaturated fat, Diet and heart disease

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Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading global cause of death, accounting for 17.3 million deaths per year. Preventive treatment that reduces CVD by even a small percentage can substantially reduce, nationally and globally, the number of people who develop CVD and the costs of caring for them. This American Heart Association presidential advisory on dietary fats and CVD reviews and discusses the scientific evidence, including the most recent studies, on the effects of dietary saturated fat intake and its replacement by other types of fats and carbohydrates on CVD. In summary, randomized controlled trials that lowered intake of dietary saturated fat and replaced it with polyunsaturated vegetable oil reduced CVD by ≈30%, similar to the reduction achieved by statin treatment. Prospective observational studies in many populations showed that lower intake of saturated fat coupled with higher intake of polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fat is associated with lower rates of CVD and of other major causes of death and all-cause mortality. In contrast, replacement of saturated fat with mostly refined carbohydrates and sugars is not associated with lower rates of CVD and did not reduce CVD in clinical trials. Replacement of saturated with unsaturated fats lowers low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, a cause of atherosclerosis, linking biological evidence with incidence of CVD in populations and in clinical trials. Taking into consideration the totality of the scientific evidence, satisfying rigorous criteria for causality, we conclude strongly that lowering intake of saturated fat and replacing it with unsaturated fats, especially polyunsaturated fats, will lower the incidence of CVD. This recommended shift from saturated to unsaturated fats should occur simultaneously in an overall healthful dietary pattern such as DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) or the Mediterranean diet as emphasized by the 2013 American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology lifestyle guidelines and the 2015 to 2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans.

Concepts: Nutrition, Atherosclerosis, Fat, Saturated fat, Lipids, Trans fat, Unsaturated fat, Polyunsaturated fat

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Saturated fat (SFA), ω-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fat (PUFA), and trans fat (TFA) influence risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), but attributable CHD mortalities by country, age, sex, and time are unclear.

Concepts: Nutrition, Fatty acids, Essential fatty acid, Saturated fat, Lipids, Trans fat, Unsaturated fat, Polyunsaturated fat

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A cornerstone of conventional dietary advice is the recommendation to replace saturated fatty acids (SFA) with mostly n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Many clinical trials aimed to test this advice and have had their results pooled in several meta-analyses. However, earlier meta-analyses did not sufficiently account for major confounding variables that were present in some of those trials. Therefore, the aim of the study was to account for the major confounding variables in the diet heart trials, and emphasise the results from those trials that most accurately test the effect of replacing SFA with mostly n-6 PUFA.

Concepts: Nutrition, Fatty acids, Essential fatty acid, Fat, Saturated fat, Trans fat, Unsaturated fat, Polyunsaturated fat

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Depression, stress and diet can all alter inflammation. This double-blind, randomized crossover study addressed the impact of daily stressors and a history of major depressive disorder (MDD) on inflammatory responses to high-fat meals. During two separate 9.5 h admissions, 58 healthy women (38 breast cancer survivors and 20 demographically similar controls), mean age 53.1 years, received either a high saturated fat meal or a high oleic sunflower oil meal. The Daily Inventory of Stressful Events assessed prior day stressors and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV evaluated MDD. As expected, for a woman with no prior day stressors, C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) were higher following the saturated fat meal than the high oleic sunflower oil meal after controlling for pre-meal measures, age, trunk fat and physical activity. But if a woman had prior day stressors, these meal-related differences disappeared-because the stressors heightened CRP, SAA, sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 responses to the sunflower oil meal, making it look more like the responses to the saturated fat meal. In addition, women with an MDD history had higher post-meal blood pressure responses than those without a similar history. These data show how recent stressors and an MDD history can reverberate through metabolic alterations, promoting inflammatory and atherogenic responses.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 20 September 2016; doi:10.1038/mp.2016.149.

Concepts: Inflammation, Nutrition, Crossover study, Trans fat, Major depressive disorder, Depression, Acute-phase protein, Sunflower oil

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Intakes of sodium, saturated fat, and trans fat remain high despite recommendations to limit these nutrients for cardiometabolic risk reduction. A major contributor to intake of these nutrients is foods prepared outside the home, particularly from fast-food restaurants.

Concepts: Nutrition, United States, Saturated fat, Trans fat, Unsaturated fat, Take-out, French fries, Fast food

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Background/Objectives:Limited data exist regarding breakfast consumption and its association with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. This study investigates the relationship between breakfast routine and CVD risk factors in a multinational sample.Subjects/Methods:Cross-sectional data from eight European countries participating in the IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants) survey (2007-2008) were used. The sample included ;children 2 to <10 years of age (n=8863, 51.2% boys). The Mann-Whitney ;U-test and logistic regression were used to assess CVD risk factors ;among ;no breakfast (NBrH), occasional breakfast and daily breakfast at home (DBrH) consumption.Results:Male school-aged NBrH consumers, ;compared with ;DBrH consumers, ;were more likely to be overweight/obese (odds ratio (OR): 1.37, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.05-1.79), to have higher risk for high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels lower than 40 mg/dl (OR: 1.69, 95% CI=1.24-2.30), triglycerides (TG) above 75 mg/dl (OR: 1.65, 95% CI=1.24-2.19) and sum of skinfolds greater than the 90th percentile (OR: 1.32, 95% CI=1.0-1.76). Female school-aged NBrH consumers ;compared with ;DBrH consumers ;had a higher risk for waist circumference greater than the 90th percentile (OR: 1.70, 95% CI=1.14-2.51), HDL cholesterol levels lower than 40 mg/dl (OR: 1.65, 95% CI=1.23-2.21), TG above 75 mg/dl (OR: 1.65, 95% CI=1.26-2.17) and total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio >3.5 (OR: 1.39, 95% CI=1.09-1.77). Results remained significant after adjusting for daily physical activity in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) periods (in min/day). Male DBrH consumers, 6 to <10 years of age, had longer daily periods of MVPA compared with ;NBrH consumers ;(32.0±21.4 vs 27.5±18.8, P<0.05). For preschoolers, breakfast consumption was negatively associated with ;CVD risk factors but results of regression models were mostly insignificant.Conclusions:Daily breakfast consumption contributes to controlling school-aged children's weight ;and lipid profile and promotes higher PA.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 21 May 2014; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2014.88.

Concepts: Cholesterol, Regression analysis, Atherosclerosis, Cardiovascular disease, Low-density lipoprotein, High-density lipoprotein, Trans fat, Apolipoprotein A1

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Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) composed of solid and liquid lipids, and surfactants are potentially good colloidal drug carriers. Before NLC can be used as drug carriers, the cytotoxicity of their components must be ascertained. The cytotoxicity of solid lipids (trilaurin, palmitin, docosanoid acid and hydrogenated palm oil [HPO]) and surfactants (Polysorbate 20, 80 and 85) were determined on BALB/c 32 3T3 cells. The HPO and Polysorbate 80 were least cytotoxic and used with olive oil in the formulation of NLC. The particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, specific surface area and crystallinity index of the NLC were 61.14 nm, 0.461, -25.4 mV and 49.07 m2 and 27.12% respectively, while the melting point was 4.3 °C lower than of 36 HPO. Unlike in serum-free, NLC incubated in fetal bovine serum-supplemented medium did not show particle growth, suggesting that serum proteins in medium 38 inhibit nanoparticles aggregation. The study also showed that NLC was less toxic to BALB/c 3T3 cells than Polysorbate 80. Thus, NLC with olive oil, HPO and 40 Polysorbate 80 as components are potentially good drug carriers with minimal cytotoxicity on normal cells.

Concepts: Protein, Colloid, Cytotoxicity, Liquid, Trans fat, Colloidal chemistry, Polysorbate 80, Polysorbate

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BACKGROUND: Food industries aim to replace trans fat in their products by formulations having equivalent functionality and economic viability. Enzymatic transesterification can be a technological option to produce trans free fats targeting commercial applications. RESULTS: Palm stearin and palm olein blends in different ratios were enzymatically transesterified in a solvent free system using a Rhizopus oryzae lipase immobilised onto CaCO3 to produce a suitable fat for margarine formulation. Slip melting points and triacylglycerols profiles were evaluated upon transesterification. Results indicated that all transesterified blends had lower slip melting points than their non transesterified counterparts. Furthermore, the triacylglycerols profile showed a decrease in the concentration of the high melting point triacylglycerols. The rheological analysis showed that margarine prepared with the transesterified blend showed a better spreadability than that of a control margarine prepared with non transesterified fat. Adding powder of dry bark orange to margarine preparation improved its colour and fairly affected its spreadability and rheological behaviour. The margarine prepared with transesterified fat displayed a rheological behaviour that was comparable to that of commercial sample. CONCLUSIONS: This study is an ecofriendly approach to the utilization of relatively low value bioresources like palm stearin and palm olein for making margarine free of trans fatty acids that are now implicated as risk factor for heart diseases.

Concepts: Nutrition, Fat, Hydrogenation, Butter, Lipid, Saturated fat, Trans fat, Margarine