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Concept: Total mesorectal excision

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Management of locally advanced rectal cancer (RC) consists of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) with fluoropyrimidines, followed by total mesorectal excision. We sought to evaluate the expression of selected genes, some of which were derived from a previous undirected SAGE (serial analysis of gene expression)-based approach, before and after CRT, to identify mechanisms of resistance.

Concepts: Gene, Gene expression, Cancer, Transcription, Molecular biology, Colorectal cancer, Total mesorectal excision, Serial analysis of gene expression

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Background/Aims: Anastomotic leakage is a complication of low anterior resection (LAR) for rectal cancer with total mesorectal excision (TME). This study evaluated the need for a protective stoma by a three-year follow-up. Methodology: A retrospective study of 56 LAR patients was conducted. Thirty patients (53.6%) had a protective stoma. C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in peripheral blood on the first and third day after surgery were compared, in addition to short-term and later complications, long-term mortality and quality of life (QOL). Results: There was significant difference between patients with and without a stoma in CRP, IL-6 on the third day after surgery (p<0.05). Anastomotic leakage occurred in two patients (6.7%) with a stoma and seven (26.9%) without (p=0.039). The incidence of leaks requiring re-operation was significantly lower with a stoma (p=0.012). After a mean follow-up of three years, there was no difference in long-term mortality, survival or scores on QOL questionnaires. Conclusions: A protective stoma can reduce the stress reaction, promote recovery of bowel function and reduce anastomotic leakage and re-operation rates in LAR for rectal cancer with TME. No significant difference was observed in long-term mortality or QOL.

Concepts: Inflammation, Time, Cancer, Surgery, Colorectal cancer, C-reactive protein, Tumor necrosis factor-alpha, Total mesorectal excision

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To determine the incidence of anastomotic-related morbidity following Transanal Total Mesorectal Excision (TaTME) and identify independent risk factors for failure.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Surgery, Total mesorectal excision, Steve Davis

6

Total mesorectal excision (TME) is the highly effective standard treatment for rectal cancer but is associated with significant morbidity and may be overtreatment for low-risk cancers. This study is designed to determine the feasibility of international recruitment in a study comparing organ-saving approaches versus standard TME surgery.

Concepts: Medicine, Cancer, Oncology, Surgery, Chemotherapy, Radiation therapy, Colorectal cancer, Total mesorectal excision

6

The management of rectal cancer has evolved over the years, including the recent rise of Transanal Total Mesorectal Excision (TaTME). TaTME addresses the limitations created by the bony confines of the pelvis, bulky tumours, and fatty mesorectum, particularly for low rectal cancers. However, guidance is required to ensure safe implementation and to avoid the pitfalls and potential major morbidity encountered by the early adopters of TaTME. We report a broad international consensus statement, which provides a basis for optimal clinical practice.

Concepts: Cancer, Disease, Oncology, Colorectal cancer, Benign tumor, Tumor, Neoplasm, Total mesorectal excision

3

The gold standard for curative treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer involves radical resection with a total mesorectal excision (TME). TME is the most effective treatment strategy to reduce local recurrence and improve survival outcomes regardless of the surgical platform used. However, there are associated morbidities, functional consequences, and quality of life (QoL) issues associated with TME; these risks must be considered during the modern-day multidisciplinary treatment for rectal cancer. This has led to the development of new surgical techniques to improve patient, oncologic, and QoL outcomes. In this work, we review the evolution of TME to the transanal total mesorectal excision (TaTME) through more traditional minimally invasive platforms. The review the development, safety and feasibility, proposed benefits and risks of the procedure, implementation and education models, and future direction for research and implementation of the TaTME in colorectal surgery. While satisfactory short-term results have been reported, the procedure is in its infancy, and long term outcomes and definitive results from controlled trials are pending. As evidence for safety and feasibility accumulates, structured training programs to standardize teaching, training, and safe expansion will aid the safe spread of the TaTME.

Concepts: Time, Surgery, Colorectal cancer, Colon, Minimally invasive, Term, Total mesorectal excision, Human Development Index

3

Standard treatment for locally advanced rectal cancer includes 5-6 weeks of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NACRT) followed by total mesorectal excision 6-8 weeks later. NACRT improves local disease control and surgical outcomes but also causes side effects including fatigue, diarrhea, hand-foot syndrome, and physical deconditioning that may impede quality of life (QoL), treatment completion, treatment response, and long-term prognosis. Interventions to improve treatment outcomes and manage side effects that are safe, tolerable and low-cost are highly desirable. Exercise has been shown to improve some of these outcomes in other cancer patient groups but no study to date has examined the potential benefits (and harms) of exercise training during and after NACRT for rectal cancer.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Epidemiology, Cancer, Oncology, Randomized controlled trial, Chemotherapy, Colorectal cancer, Total mesorectal excision

2

Rectal cancer surgery is technically challenging and depends on many factors. This study evaluated the ability of clinical and anatomical factors to predict surgical difficulty in total mesorectal excision.

Concepts: Medicine, Hospital, Surgery, Chemotherapy, Colorectal cancer, Physician, Excision, Total mesorectal excision

2

Transanal total mesorectal excision (TaTME) seems to be a valid alternative to the open or laparoscopic TME. Quality of the TME specimen is the most important prognostic factor in rectal cancer. This study shows the pathological results of the largest single-institution series published on TaTME in patients with mid and low rectal cancer.

Concepts: Cancer, Colorectal cancer, Total mesorectal excision

2

Transanal total mesorectal excision is a new approach to curative-intent rectal cancer surgery. Training and surgeon experience with this approach has not been assessed previously in America.

Concepts: United States, Surgery, Colorectal cancer, Physician, Surgeon, North America, American College of Surgeons, Total mesorectal excision