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Concept: Torsion


Classic beam theory is frequently used in biomechanics to model the stress behaviour of vertebrate long bones, particularly when creating intraspecific scaling models. Although methodologically straightforward, classic beam theory requires complex irregular bones to be approximated as slender beams, and the errors associated with simplifying complex organic structures to such an extent are unknown. Alternative approaches, such as finite element analysis (FEA), while much more time-consuming to perform, require no such assumptions. This study compares the results obtained using classic beam theory with those from FEA to quantify the beam theory errors and to provide recommendations about when a full FEA is essential for reasonable biomechanical predictions. High-resolution computed tomographic scans of eight vertebrate long bones were used to calculate diaphyseal stress owing to various loading regimes. Under compression, FEA values of minimum principal stress (σ(min)) were on average 142 per cent (±28% s.e.) larger than those predicted by beam theory, with deviation between the two models correlated to shaft curvature (two-tailed p = 0.03, r(2) = 0.56). Under bending, FEA values of maximum principal stress (σ(max)) and beam theory values differed on average by 12 per cent (±4% s.e.), with deviation between the models significantly correlated to cross-sectional asymmetry at midshaft (two-tailed p = 0.02, r(2) = 0.62). In torsion, assuming maximum stress values occurred at the location of minimum cortical thickness brought beam theory and FEA values closest in line, and in this case FEA values of τ(torsion) were on average 14 per cent (±5% s.e.) higher than beam theory. Therefore, FEA is the preferred modelling solution when estimates of absolute diaphyseal stress are required, although values calculated by beam theory for bending may be acceptable in some situations.

Concepts: Interval finite element, Finite element method, Model, Biomechanics, Solid mechanics, Beam, Torsion, Structural analysis


To validate torsional analysis, based on finite elements, of WaveOne instruments against in vitro tests and to model the effects of different nickel titanium materials METHODOLOGY: WaveOne reciprocating instruments (Small, Primary and Large, n=8 each, M-Wire) were tested under torsion according to standard ISO 3630-1. Torsional profiles including torque and angle at fracture were determined. Test conditions were reproduced through Finite Element Analysis (FEA) simulations based on micro CT scans at 10μm resolution; results were compared to experimental data using analysis of variance and two-sided one sample t-tests. The same simulation was performed on virtual instruments with identical geometry and load condition, based on M-Wire or conventional NiTi alloy.

Concepts: Engineering, Finite element method, Hilbert space, Normal distribution, Analysis of variance, Standard, Partial differential equation, Torsion


Open reduction internal fixation technique has been generally accepted for treatment of midshaft clavicle fractures. Both superior and anterior clavicle plates have been reported in clinical or biomechanical researches, while presently the spiral clavicle plate design has been introduced improved biomechanical behavior over conventional designs. In order to objectively realize the multi-directional biomechanical performances among the three geometries for clavicle plate designs, a current conceptual finite element study has been conducted with identical cross-sectional features for clavicle plates. The conceptual superior, anterior, and spiral clavicle plate models were constructed for virtual reduction and fixation to an OTA 15-B1.3 midshaft transverse fracture of clavicle. Mechanical load cases including cantilever bending, axial compression, inferior bending, and axial torsion have been applied for confirming the multi-directional structural stability and implant safety in biomechanical perspective. Results revealed that the anterior clavicle plate model represented lowest plate stress under all loading cases. The superior clavicle plate model showed greater axial compressive stiffness, while the anterior clavicle plate model performed greater rigidity under cantilever bending load. Three model represented similar structural stiffness under axial torsion. Played as a transition structure between superior and anterior clavicle plate, the spiral clavicle plate model revealed comparable results with acceptable multi-directional biomechanical behavior. The concept of spiral clavicle plate design is worth considering in practical application in clinics. Implant safety should be further investigated by evidences in future mechanical tests and clinical observations.

Concepts: Bone fracture, Fracture, Orthopedic surgery, Clavicle fracture, Elasticity, Clavicle, Torsion, Superiority complex


Insight into crumpling or compaction of one-dimensional objects is important for understanding biopolymer packaging and designing innovative technological devices. By compacting various types of wires in rigid confinements and characterizing the morphology of the resulting crumpled structures, here, we report how friction, plasticity and torsion enhance disorder, leading to a transition from coiled to folded morphologies. In the latter case, where folding dominates the crumpling process, we find that reducing the relative wire thickness counter-intuitively causes the maximum packing density to decrease. The segment size distribution gradually becomes more asymmetric during compaction, reflecting an increase of spatial correlations. We introduce a self-avoiding random walk model and verify that the cumulative injected wire length follows a universal dependence on segment size, allowing for the prediction of the efficiency of compaction as a function of material properties, container size and injection force.

Concepts: Fundamental physics concepts, Force, Space, Materials science, Classical mechanics, Point, Wire, Torsion


Soft bioelectronic devices provide new opportunities for next-generation implantable devices owing to their soft mechanical nature that leads to minimal tissue damages and immune responses. However, a soft form of the implantable optoelectronic device for optical sensing and retinal stimulation has not been developed yet because of the bulkiness and rigidity of conventional imaging modules and their composing materials. Here, we describe a high-density and hemispherically curved image sensor array that leverages the atomically thin MoS2-graphene heterostructure and strain-releasing device designs. The hemispherically curved image sensor array exhibits infrared blindness and successfully acquires pixelated optical signals. We corroborate the validity of the proposed soft materials and ultrathin device designs through theoretical modeling and finite element analysis. Then, we propose the ultrathin hemispherically curved image sensor array as a promising imaging element in the soft retinal implant. The CurvIS array is applied as a human eye-inspired soft implantable optoelectronic device that can detect optical signals and apply programmed electrical stimulation to optic nerves with minimum mechanical side effects to the retina.

Concepts: Photon, Optics, Engineering, Finite element method, Retina, Optic nerve, Photonics, Torsion


The mechanical flexibility of coordination frameworks can lead to a range of highly anomalous structural behaviours. Here, we demonstrate the extreme compressibility of the LnFe(CN)6 frameworks (Ln = Ho, Lu or Y), which reversibly compress by 20% in volume under the relatively low pressure of 1 GPa, one of the largest known pressure responses for any crystalline material. We delineate in detail the mechanism for this high compressibility, where the LnN6 units act like torsion springs synchronized by rigid Fe(CN)6 units performing the role of gears. The materials also show significant negative linear compressibility via a cam-like effect. The torsional mechanism is fundamentally distinct from the deformation mechanisms prevalent in other flexible solids and relies on competition between locally unstable metal coordination geometries and the constraints of the framework connectivity, a discovery that has implications for the strategic design of new materials with exceptional mechanical properties.

Concepts: Crystal, Torque, Thermodynamics, Metal, Materials science, Pressure, Torsion, Torsion spring


Football turf is increasingly used in European soccer competition. Little is known on the rotational torque that players experience on these fields. High rotational torques between the shoe outsole and the sports surface has been correlated with torsional injuries of the lower limb and knee.

Concepts: Angular momentum, Torque, Rotation, Shoe, Moment of inertia, Artificial turf, Torsion, Torque tester


Changes in left ventricular (LV) torsion have been related to LV geometry in patients with concomitant long-standing myocardial disease or pulmonary hypertension (PH). We evaluated the effect of acute high altitude-induced isolated PH on LV geometry, volumes, systolic function, and torsional mechanics.

Concepts: Cardiology, Heart, Blood pressure, Group, Differential geometry, Mechanics, Torsion, Torsion spring


Defining the optimal cutting plane for derotational osteotomy at the distal femur for correction of torsion in cases of patellofemoral instability is still challenging. This preliminary study investigates changes of frontal alignment by a simplified trigonometrical model and demonstrates a surgical guidance technique with the use of femur cadavers. The hypothesis was that regardless of midshaft bowing, a cutting plane perpendicular to the virtual anatomic shaft axis avoids unintended valgus malalignment due to derotation.

Concepts: Femur, Perpendicular, Torsion


Because of the outstanding mechanical and electrical properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), a CNT-based torsion pendulum is demonstrated to show great potential in nano-electromechanical systems. It is also expected to achieve various manipulations for further characterization and increase device sensitivity using ultrlong CNTs and macroscale moving parts. However, the reported top-down method limits the CNT performance and device size by introducing inevitable contamination and destruction, which greatly hinders the development of single-molecule devices. Here, a bottom-up method is introduced to fabricate heterostructures of anthracene flakes (AFs) and suspended CNTs, providing a nondamaging CNT mechanical measurement before further applications, especially for the twisting behavior, and providing a controllable and clean transfer method to fabricate CNT-based electrical devices under ambient conditions. Based on the unique geometry of CNT/AF heterostructures, various complex manipulations of single-CNT devices are conducted to investigate CNT mechanical properties and prompt novel applications of similar structures in nanotechnology. The AF-decorated CNTs show high Young’s modulus (≈1 TPa) and tensile strength (≈100 GPa), and can be considered as the finest and strongest torsional springs. CNT-based torsion balance enables to measure fN-level forces and the torsional spring constant is two orders of magnitude lower than previously reported values.

Concepts: Carbon nanotube, Tensile strength, Pascal, Young's modulus, Spring, Torsion, Torsion spring, Springs