Concept: Topographic map
The superior labial artery, which is a branch of the facial artery, supplies the upper lip area. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution pattern of the superior labial artery and provide precise topographic information of the artery for dermal filler injection.
We developed a novel integrated technology for diver-operated surveying of shallow marine ecosystems. The HyperDiver system captures rich multifaceted data in each transect: hyperspectral and color imagery, topographic profiles, incident irradiance and water chemistry at a rate of 15-30 m(2) per minute. From surveys in a coral reef following standard diver protocols, we show how the rich optical detail can be leveraged to generate photopigment abundance and benthic composition maps. We applied machine learning techniques, with a minor annotation effort (<2% of pixels), to automatically generate cm-scale benthic habitat maps of high taxonomic resolution and accuracy (93-97%). The ability to efficiently map benthic composition, photopigment densities and rugosity at reef scales is a compelling contribution to modernize reef monitoring. Seafloor-level hyperspectral images can be used for automated mapping, avoiding operator bias in the analysis and deliver the degree of detail necessary for standardized environmental monitoring. The technique can deliver fast, objective and economic reef survey results, making it a valuable tool for coastal managers and reef ecologists. Underwater hyperspectral surveying shares the vantage point of the high spatial and taxonomic resolution restricted to field surveys, with analytical techniques of remote sensing and provides targeted validation for aerial monitoring.
Topographic variation underpins a myriad of patterns and processes in hydrology, climatology, geography and ecology and is key to understanding the variation of life on the planet. A fully standardized and global multivariate product of different terrain features has the potential to support many large-scale research applications, however to date, such datasets are unavailable. Here we used the digital elevation model products of global 250 m GMTED2010 and near-global 90 m SRTM4.1dev to derive a suite of topographic variables: elevation, slope, aspect, eastness, northness, roughness, terrain roughness index, topographic position index, vector ruggedness measure, profile/tangential curvature, first/second order partial derivative, and 10 geomorphological landform classes. We aggregated each variable to 1, 5, 10, 50 and 100 km spatial grains using several aggregation approaches. While a cross-correlation underlines the high similarity of many variables, a more detailed view in four mountain regions reveals local differences, as well as scale variations in the aggregated variables at different spatial grains. All newly-developed variables are available for download at Data Citation 1 and for download and visualization at http://www.earthenv.org/topography.
Intertidal ecosystems have primarily been studied using field-based sampling; remote sensing offers the ability to collect data over large areas in a snapshot of time that could complement field-based sampling methods by extrapolating them into the wider spatial and temporal context. Conventional remote sensing tools (such as satellite and aircraft imaging) provide data at limited spatial and temporal resolutions and relatively high costs for small-scale environmental science and ecologically-focussed studies. In this paper, we describe a low-cost, kite-based imaging system and photogrammetric/mapping procedure that was developed for constructing high-resolution, three-dimensional, multi-spectral terrain models of intertidal rocky shores. The processing procedure uses automatic image feature detection and matching, structure-from-motion and photo-textured terrain surface reconstruction algorithms that require minimal human input and only a small number of ground control points and allow the use of cheap, consumer-grade digital cameras. The resulting maps combine imagery at visible and near-infrared wavelengths and topographic information at sub-centimeter resolutions over an intertidal shoreline 200 m long, thus enabling spatial properties of the intertidal environment to be determined across a hierarchy of spatial scales. Results of the system are presented for an intertidal rocky shore at Jervis Bay, New South Wales, Australia. Potential uses of this technique include mapping of plant (micro- and macro-algae) and animal (e.g. gastropods) assemblages at multiple spatial and temporal scales.
The motor cortex orchestrates simple to complex motor behaviors through its output projections to target areas. The primary (MOp) and secondary (MOs) motor cortices are known to produce specific output projections that are targeted to both similar and different target areas. These projections are further divided into layer 5 and 6 neuronal outputs, thereby producing four cortical outputs that may target other areas in a combinatorial manner. However, the precise network structure that integrates these four projections remains poorly understood. Here, we constructed a whole-brain, three-dimensional (3D) map showing the tract pathways and targeting locations of these four motor cortical outputs in mice. Remarkably, these motor cortical projections showed unique and separate tract pathways despite targeting similar areas. Within target areas, various combinations of these four projections were defined based on specific 3D spatial patterns, reflecting anterior-posterior, dorsal-ventral, and core-capsular relationships. This 3D topographic map ultimately provides evidence for the relevance of comparative connectomics: motor cortical projections known to be convergent are actually segregated in many target areas with unique targeting patterns, a finding that has anatomical value for revealing functional subdomains that have not been classified by conventional methods.
Textured surfaces with periodic topographical features and long-range order are highly attractive for directing cell-material interactions. They mimic physiological environments more accurately than planar surfaces and can fundamentally alter cell alignment, shape, gene expression, and cellular assembly into superstructures or microtissues. Here we demonstrate for the first time that wrinkled graphene-based surfaces are suitable as textured cell attachment substrates, and that engineered wrinkling can dramatically alter cell alignment and morphology. The wrinkled surfaces are fabricated by graphene oxide wet deposition onto pre-stretched elastomers followed by relaxation and mild thermal treatment to stabilize the films in cell culture medium. Multilayer graphene oxide films form periodic, delaminated buckle textures whose wavelengths and amplitudes can be systematically tuned by variation in the wet deposition process. Human and murine fibroblasts attach to these textured films and remain viable, while developing pronounced alignment and elongation relative to those on planar graphene controls. Compared to lithographic patterning of nanogratings, this method has advantages in the simplicity and scalability of fabrication, as well as the opportunity to couple the use of topographic cues with the unique conductive, adsorptive, or barrier properties of graphene materials for functional biomedical devices.
Predetermined and selective placement of nanoparticles onto large-area substrates with nanometre-scale precision is essential to harness the unique properties of nanoparticle assemblies, in particular for functional optical and electro-optical nanodevices. Unfortunately, such high spatial organization is currently beyond the reach of top-down nanofabrication techniques alone. Here, we demonstrate that topographic features comprising lithographed funnelled traps and auxiliary sidewalls on a solid substrate can deterministically direct the capillary assembly of Au nanorods to attain simultaneous control of position, orientation and interparticle distance at the nanometre level. We report up to 100% assembly yield over centimetre-scale substrates. We achieve this by optimizing the three sequential stages of capillary nanoparticle assembly: insertion of nanorods into the traps, resilience against the receding suspension front and drying of the residual solvent. Finally, using electron energy-loss spectroscopy we characterize the spectral response and near-field properties of spatially programmable Au nanorod dimers, highlighting the opportunities for precise tunability of the plasmonic modes in larger assemblies.
Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) play a prominent role in glaciological studies for the mass balance of glaciers and ice sheets. By providing a time snapshot of glacier geometry, DEMs are crucial for most glacier evolution modelling studies, but are also important for cryospheric modelling in general. We present a historical medium-resolution DEM and orthophotographs that consistently cover the entire surroundings and margins of the Greenland Ice Sheet 1978-1987. About 3,500 aerial photographs of Greenland are combined with field surveyed geodetic ground control to produce a 25 m gridded DEM and a 2 m black-and-white digital orthophotograph. Supporting data consist of a reliability mask and a photo footprint coverage with recording dates. Through one internal and two external validation tests, this DEM shows an accuracy better than 10 m horizontally and 6 m vertically while the precision is better than 4 m. This dataset proved successful for topographical mapping and geodetic mass balance. Other uses include control and calibration of remotely sensed data such as imagery or InSAR velocity maps.
The identification of specific fat compartments of the face has greatly improved the plastic surgeon’s approach to facial rejuvenation. These superficial and deep compartments are discretely partitioned into multiple independent units by fascial barriers and undergo age-dependant volumetric changes. This knowledge has created a topographical map allowing for the direct and precise augmentation of those compartments that are deflated preferentially. These include the deep medial cheek, nasolabial, superficial middle, and lateral cheek compartments. Once this volume loss has been addressed, the overlying superficial musculoaponeurotic system and skin envelope can be treated to address laxity and bridge the compartments, creating a smooth cheek contour. Facial augmentation can be performed alone in the correct patient; however, it most often complements face-lifting. It is, therefore, important to have a thorough understanding of this anatomy and the changes that occur during aging.
To date, it has been shown that cognitive map representations based on cartographic visualisations are systematically distorted. The grid is a traditional element of map graphics that has rarely been considered in research on perception-based spatial distortions. Grids do not only support the map reader in finding coordinates or locations of objects, they also provide a systematic structure for clustering visual map information (“spatial chunks”). The aim of this study was to examine whether different cartographic kinds of grids reduce spatial distortions and improve recall memory for object locations. Recall performance was measured as both the percentage of correctly recalled objects (hit rate) and the mean distance errors of correctly recalled objects (spatial accuracy). Different kinds of grids (continuous lines, dashed lines, crosses) were applied to topographic maps. These maps were also varied in their type of characteristic areas (LANDSCAPE) and different information layer compositions (DENSITY) to examine the effects of map complexity. The study involving 144 participants shows that all experimental cartographic factors (GRID, LANDSCAPE, DENSITY) improve recall performance and spatial accuracy of learned object locations. Overlaying a topographic map with a grid significantly reduces the mean distance errors of correctly recalled map objects. The paper includes a discussion of a square grid’s usefulness concerning object location memory, independent of whether the grid is clearly visible (continuous or dashed lines) or only indicated by crosses.