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Concept: Toothbrush

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BACKGROUND: Dental caries among young children are a global problem. Scant attention is paid towards primary teeth, leading to high prevalence of dental caries. There are only few studies done in Sri Lanka, addressing oral hygiene among preschool children. Scientific evidence is in need to persuade authorities to establish a programme promoting oral hygiene among preschool children. METHODS: A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted in Ragama Medical officer of Health area. Consecutive children between 2 – 5 years of age, attending child welfare clinics were recruited for the study. Practices related to dental hygiene and socio-economic characteristics were obtained using an interviewer administered questionnaire. Mouth was examined for evidence of dental caries. Data collection and examination were done by two doctors who were trained for this purpose. The data were analysed using SSPS version 16. RESULTS: Total of 410 children were included. None had a routine visits to a dentist. Practices related to tooth brushing were satisfactory. Prevalence of dental caries gradually increased with age to reach 68.8% by 5 years. Mean total decayed-extracted-filled (deft) score for the whole sample was 1.41 and Significant caries index (SIC) was 4.09. Decayed tooth were the main contributor for the deft score and Care index was only 1.55. Girls had a significantly higher prevalence of caries than boys. CONCLUSIONS: Dental care provided for Sri Lankan preschool children appears to be unsatisfactory as prevalence of dental caries among this cohort of preschool children was very high. There is an urgent need to improve dental care facilities for Sri Lankan preschool children.

Concepts: Teeth, Dental caries, Sri Lanka, Dental plaque, Oral hygiene, Dental floss, Halitosis, Toothbrush

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Triclosan (TCS), a broad-spectrum antimicrobial, is used in commercial toothpastes with reported dental benefits. Our studies on 22 popular manual toothbrushes in the U.S. showed that common toothbrush head components can accumulate substantial amounts of TCS after brushing with TCS-formulated toothpastes (TCS-TPs). After simulated 3-month brushing with a commercial best-selling TCS-TP, over one third of the adults' toothbrushes showed a cumulative TCS uptake of 21-37.5 mg, equivalent to 7-12.5 doses of the TCS used per brushing. Similar results were observed on children’s toothbrushes with small pea-size heads. Elastomer components were found to be the main contributor while both nylon bristles and elastomers could act as absorptive sinks for TCS during brushing. Studies on six different TCS-TPs containing 0.3 wt% TCS showed similar profiles of TCS accumulation. The absorbed TCS was gradually released into toothpaste slurries after switching to TCS-free alternatives. Release of TCS, which typically measured at a fraction (<75%) of the standard dose using the TCS-TPs, continued for over 2 weeks and occurred most rapidly in peroxide-containing "whitening" toothpastes, followed by alkaline and surfactant-rich toothpastes. The accumulating effect was not exclusive to TCS but was commonly observed on several chemicals identified in TCS-TPs and a range of regular toothpastes.

Concepts: Polymer, Nylon, Oral hygiene, Thermoplastic, Toothpaste, Dental floss, Toothbrush, Triclosan

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The use of a toothbrush has a limited ability to control the dental biofilm in interproximal areas. Therefore, specialized devices, such as dental floss, may be useful for these specific areas.

Concepts: Randomized controlled trial, Biofilm, Dental plaque, Dental equipment, Oral hygiene, Dental floss, Toothbrush, Floss pick

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The aim was to compare the efficacy of the electric versus the manual toothbrush in terms of the oral hygiene achieved by patients wearing rapid palatal expanders (RPEs).

Concepts: Toothbrush

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Objectives To assess the methods of toothbrushing recommended for both adults and children by dental associations, toothpaste and toothbrush companies and professional sources such as in dental textbooks and by experts. Secondly, to compare the advice by source and whether recommendations differed for adults and for children.Methods Examination of online material on methods of toothbrushing from dental associations, toothpaste and toothbrush companies and associated organisations providing professional advice; as well as from dental texts.Results There was a wide diversity between recommendations on toothbrushing techniques, how often people should brush their teeth and for how long. The most common method recommended was the Modified Bass technique, by 19. Eleven recommended the Bass technique, ten recommended the Fones technique and five recommended the Scrub technique. The methods recommended by companies, mainly toothpaste companies, differed from those of dental associations, as did advice in dental textbooks and research-based sources. There was a wide difference in the toothbrushing methods recommended for adults and for children.Conclusions The unacceptably large diversity in recommendations on what toothbrushing method to use should concern the dental profession. Higher grades of evidence of effectiveness of toothbrushing techniques are required to inform professional bodies that develop guidelines on toothbrushing.

Concepts: Professional, Teeth, Dental plaque, Oral hygiene, Toothpaste, Toothbrush, Tooth brushing, Bass Rock

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Dental caries in young children is a major public health problem impacting on the child and their family in terms of pain, infection and substantial financial burden on healthcare funders. In the UK, national guidance on the prevention of dental caries advises parents to supervise their child’s brushing with fluoride toothpaste until age 7. However, there is a dearth of evidence-based interventions to encourage this practice in parents. The current study used intervention mapping (IM) to develop a home-based parental-supervised toothbrushing intervention to reduce dental caries in young children.

Concepts: Health care, Public health, Health, Dental caries, Oral hygiene, The Child, Fluoride therapy, Toothbrush

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Manufacturers of manual toothbrushes have improved novel brush head designs aimed at achieving good plaque removal even with inadequate brushing technique. This study tested the plaque removal efficacy of two novel designs compared with a flat trimmed toothbrush with different brushing techniques. Two novel-design toothbrushes (Colgate® 360° Surround and Oral-B® Pro-Health™ Clinical Pro-Flex) were tested. The control toothbrush was Butler® GUM 311. Artificial plaque was applied on artificial teeth. Brushing with the modified Bass and horizontal scrub technique was then performed independently. After brushing, the remaining plaque index and Proximal Marginal Index (PMI) were evaluated. With the same brushing technique, there was no statistically significant difference in the mean of the whole mouth plaque scores or PMI among the three different toothbrush designs with neither brushing techniques (p > 0.05). When a comparison was made between the mean PMI of the two brushing techniques in each toothbrush design, Colgate® showed no statistically significant difference with either brushing technique (p > 0.05), but Butler® and Oral-B® showed statistically significantly less PMI with modified Bass technique than with horizontal scrub technique (p < 0.05). No difference in the whole mouth plaque removal efficacy was found among the three different toothbrush designs with either brushing technique.

Concepts: Comparison, Statistics, Statistical significance, Difference, Dental plaque, Applied mathematics, Oral hygiene, Toothbrush

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The present study sought to test oral-care products available on the Swiss market, such as toothpastes and gels, with respect to the protection of enamel against erosive tooth wear. A total of 56 enamel specimens were divided into 7 groups (n = 8): F-TP = Migros Budget Anti-Caries Toothpaste (Negative Control); F+Sn3500-TP = Elmex Erosion Protection Toothpaste (Positive Control); F-TP + F+Oligopep-Gel = Migros Budget Anti-Caries Toothpaste + Emofluor Protect Gel Professional; F+Sn3120-Gel = Emofluor Gel Intensive Care; F+Oligopep-TP = Candida Protect Professional Toothpaste; F+Sn1260-TP = Emoform-F Protect Toothpaste; and F+Sn3440-TP = Sensodyne Repair & Protect Toothpaste. The specimens were incubated in artificial saliva for 30 min and then brushed in a toothbrushing machine (10 s brushing; total 2 min exposure to the product). After the toothbrush abrasion, the specimens were rinsed, dried and submitted to an erosive challenge (2 min; 1% citric acid; pH 3.6). This sequence was repeated 4 times, and the total enamel surface loss was calculated using indentation measurements before and after the brushing period. All groups presented progressive surface loss throughout the experiment; after 4 cycles, total surface loss values ranged from 0.11 µm (F+Sn3120-Gel) to 0.89 µm (F+Sn1260-TP). Regarding the total surface loss values (median; interquartile range), F-TP (0.54; 0.42–0.59) presented no significant differences compared to any of the other groups. F+Sn3500-TP (0.33; 0.30–0.40), F-TP + F+Oligopep-Gel (0.34; 0.29–0.42) and F+Sn3120-Gel (0.11; 0.09–0.15) presented lower surface loss than F+Oligopep-TP (0.75; 0.59–0.98), F+Sn1260-TP (0.89; 0.68–1.13) and F+Sn3440-TP (0.69; 0.66–0.78). Conclusion: Although some of the oral-care products containing stannous ions or oligopeptide-104 presented numerically lower SL values, they did not present significantly better protection than a regular fluoride toothpaste. The gels showed a general trend of better enamel protection against ETW.

Concepts: Scientific control, Time, Acid, Median, Teeth, Citric acid, Toothpaste, Toothbrush

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This in vitro study evaluated the effect of microparticles (TMPmicro) or nanoparticles (TMPnano) TMP associated with fluoride (F) in toothpaste formulations on the obliteration of dentinal tubules (DT).

Concepts: In vitro fertilisation, In vitro, Fluoride therapy, Toothpaste, Toothbrush, Sodium fluoride