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Concept: Toothbrush


BACKGROUND: Dental caries among young children are a global problem. Scant attention is paid towards primary teeth, leading to high prevalence of dental caries. There are only few studies done in Sri Lanka, addressing oral hygiene among preschool children. Scientific evidence is in need to persuade authorities to establish a programme promoting oral hygiene among preschool children. METHODS: A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted in Ragama Medical officer of Health area. Consecutive children between 2 – 5 years of age, attending child welfare clinics were recruited for the study. Practices related to dental hygiene and socio-economic characteristics were obtained using an interviewer administered questionnaire. Mouth was examined for evidence of dental caries. Data collection and examination were done by two doctors who were trained for this purpose. The data were analysed using SSPS version 16. RESULTS: Total of 410 children were included. None had a routine visits to a dentist. Practices related to tooth brushing were satisfactory. Prevalence of dental caries gradually increased with age to reach 68.8% by 5 years. Mean total decayed-extracted-filled (deft) score for the whole sample was 1.41 and Significant caries index (SIC) was 4.09. Decayed tooth were the main contributor for the deft score and Care index was only 1.55. Girls had a significantly higher prevalence of caries than boys. CONCLUSIONS: Dental care provided for Sri Lankan preschool children appears to be unsatisfactory as prevalence of dental caries among this cohort of preschool children was very high. There is an urgent need to improve dental care facilities for Sri Lankan preschool children.

Concepts: Halitosis, Toothbrush, Teeth, Dental floss, Dental plaque, Oral hygiene, Sri Lanka, Dental caries


The use of a toothbrush has a limited ability to control the dental biofilm in interproximal areas. Therefore, specialized devices, such as dental floss, may be useful for these specific areas.

Concepts: Toothbrush, Floss pick, Biofilm, Dental plaque, Dental equipment, Randomized controlled trial, Oral hygiene, Dental floss


The aim was to compare the efficacy of the electric versus the manual toothbrush in terms of the oral hygiene achieved by patients wearing rapid palatal expanders (RPEs).

Concepts: Toothbrush


Objectives To assess the methods of toothbrushing recommended for both adults and children by dental associations, toothpaste and toothbrush companies and professional sources such as in dental textbooks and by experts. Secondly, to compare the advice by source and whether recommendations differed for adults and for children.Methods Examination of online material on methods of toothbrushing from dental associations, toothpaste and toothbrush companies and associated organisations providing professional advice; as well as from dental texts.Results There was a wide diversity between recommendations on toothbrushing techniques, how often people should brush their teeth and for how long. The most common method recommended was the Modified Bass technique, by 19. Eleven recommended the Bass technique, ten recommended the Fones technique and five recommended the Scrub technique. The methods recommended by companies, mainly toothpaste companies, differed from those of dental associations, as did advice in dental textbooks and research-based sources. There was a wide difference in the toothbrushing methods recommended for adults and for children.Conclusions The unacceptably large diversity in recommendations on what toothbrushing method to use should concern the dental profession. Higher grades of evidence of effectiveness of toothbrushing techniques are required to inform professional bodies that develop guidelines on toothbrushing.

Concepts: Dental plaque, Professional, Bass Rock, Teeth, Tooth brushing, Toothpaste, Oral hygiene, Toothbrush


Dental caries in young children is a major public health problem impacting on the child and their family in terms of pain, infection and substantial financial burden on healthcare funders. In the UK, national guidance on the prevention of dental caries advises parents to supervise their child’s brushing with fluoride toothpaste until age 7. However, there is a dearth of evidence-based interventions to encourage this practice in parents. The current study used intervention mapping (IM) to develop a home-based parental-supervised toothbrushing intervention to reduce dental caries in young children.

Concepts: The Child, Toothbrush, Public health, Health care, Health, Dental caries, Oral hygiene, Fluoride therapy


We investigated the role of normative support, behavioural automaticity, and action control in predicting dental flossing behaviour. Between May and October 2015, 629 Australian young adults completed a questionnaire assessing constructs of normative support and automaticity, and a 2-week follow-up of dental flossing behaviour and action control, resulting in n = 241 persons for longitudinal analysis. Findings supported the hypotheses that the effect of normative support on behaviour would be mediated via automaticity, and the effect of automaticity would be moderated by action control. Current results extend previous research to elucidate the mechanisms that help to understand predictors of oral hygiene behaviours and contribute to the cumulative evidence concerning self-regulatory and automatic components of health behaviour.

Concepts: Floss pick, Prediction, Scientific method, Tongue cleaner, Toothbrush, Oral hygiene, Dental caries, Dental floss


Primary care providers, gynaecologists and paediatricians have to be aware of the importance of oral health in infancy and possible consequences for child’s development, growth, health and quality of life. Oral diseases, particularly dental caries, developmental defects of the dental tissues and periodontal or orthodontic issues have a complex and interrelated aetiology with common, primarily behavioral based risk factors. A sugar-rich diet is the key risk factor with detrimental consequences for general and oral health, particularly in combination with an insufficient oral hygiene. Therefore, daily tooth brushing with fluoride toothpaste and reducing of sugar intake are the key pillars to prevent oral diseases, including a positive effect on numerous chronic diseases. Future preventive approaches should focus on pregnant women and mothers of infants with a common vision of health and a shared responsibility for children’s oral health care to promote healthy lifestyles and self-care practices in families.

Concepts: Toothbrush, Dentistry, Dental caries, Epidemiology, Oral hygiene, Halitosis, Fluoride therapy, Medicine


The surface of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) is vulnerable to indentation by hard objects that may contribute to abrade the material surface and subject it to wear. This phenomenon promotes an increase in the surface roughness leading to microbial colonisation which can endanger the general health of wearers and damage the intra-oral prosthesis. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of three different nanocryl coating agents (Easy Glaze, G-Coat Plus and Formulation XP) on surface roughness and thickness of PMMA material after a simulating cleaning process utilizing an electric toothbrush and three different dentifrices (pastes and immersion). Acrylic uncoated discs were used as a control group. The results showed that the G-Coat Plus coating agent had less changes in the surface roughness and thickness layer whereas the immersion cleaner revealed less abrasion effect compared with the paste cleaners which could be considered the most suitable cleaner to provide lower abrasivenes and good removal of organic debris. However, using nanofilled sealants did not demonstrate significant improvement in reducing surface roughness p ⟩ 0.05. Nevertheless, it could provide some protection against wearing to the acrylic resin surface during tooth brushing and may provide better resistance to microbial colonisation.

Concepts: Poly(methyl methacrylate), Wear, Surface metrology, Dentures, Toothbrush, Roughness, Materials science, Oral hygiene


Objective This study aims at investigating factors affecting oral health patterns, attitudes and health risk behaviors among female university students. Methods An online questionnaire was distributed to female university students in Al Madinah in the western region of Saudi Arabia. Students were requested to answer questions on demographic data, oral hygiene practices, dental attendance, smoking history, practice of sports and body weight and height. Results Two hundred and fourteen students participated with age range of 18-31 years (mean = 21.64 ± 1.72 years). Oral hygiene habits were reported by a percentage of 97.2%, 34.6%, 30.8% and 19.2% who used a tooth brush, dental floss, mouthwash, and a miswak (a teeth cleaning twig made from the Salvadora persica tree), respectively. The only factor that was significantly associated with a good oral hygiene level was a university major of non-healthcare specialties (p = 0.009). Conclusion It is concluded that female university students use various oral hygiene methods, however, dental attendance is poor and a number of health risk factors are noticed like smoking, lack of practicing sport and unhealthy body mass index (BMI).

Concepts: Teeth cleaning twig, Medina, Dental floss, Body mass index, Saudi Arabia, Toothbrush, Miswak, Oral hygiene


In a three-arm randomized control trial, this study compared the efficacy of dental health education (DHE) with or without a planning intervention on adherence to oral health-related behaviours.

Concepts: Dental floss, Pregnancy, Toothbrush, Childbirth, Oral hygiene, Efficacy, Public health, Randomized controlled trial