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Concept: Tooth


The restoration of dentine lost in deep caries lesions in teeth is a routine and common treatment that involves the use of inorganic cements based on calcium or silicon-based mineral aggregates. Such cements remain in the tooth and fail to degrade and thus normal mineral volume is never completely restored. Here we describe a novel, biological approach to dentine restoration that stimulates the natural formation of reparative dentine via the mobilisation of resident stem cells in the tooth pulp. Biodegradable, clinically-approved collagen sponges are used to deliver low doses of small molecule glycogen synthase kinase (GSK-3) antagonists that promote the natural processes of reparative dentine formation to completely restore dentine. Since the carrier sponge is degraded over time, dentine replaces the degraded sponge leading to a complete, effective natural repair. This simple, rapid natural tooth repair process could thus potentially provide a new approach to clinical tooth restoration.

Concepts: Enzyme, Animal, Teeth, Tooth, Dental caries, Portland cement, GSK-3, GSK3B


BACKGROUND: Recent studies reported on the very complex morphology of the pulp system in equine cheek teeth. The continuous production of secondary dentine leads to distinct age-related changes of the endodontic cavity. Detailed anatomical knowledge of the dental cavities in all ages is required to explain the aetiopathology of typical equine endodontic diseases. Furthermore, data on mandibular and maxillary pulp systems is in high demand to provide a basis for the development of endodontic therapies. However, until now examination of the pulp cavity has been based on either sectioned teeth or clinical computed tomography. More precise results were expected by using micro-computed tomography with a resolution of about 0.1 mm and three-dimensional reconstructions based on previous greyscale analyses and histological verification. The aim of the present study was to describe the physiological configurations of the pulp system within a wide spectrum of tooth ages. RESULTS: Maxillary teeth: All morphological constituents of the endodontic cavity were present in teeth between 4 and 16 years: Triadan 06s displayed six pulp horns and five root canals, Triadan 07-10s five pulp horns and four root canals and Triadan 11s seven pulp horns and four to six root canals. A common pulp chamber was most frequent in teeth <=5 years, but was found even in a tooth of 9 years. A large variety of pulp configurations was observed within 2.5 and 16 years post eruption, but most commonly a separation into mesial and distal pulp compartments was seen. Maxillary cheek teeth showed up to four separate pulp compartments but the frequency of two, three and four pulp compartments was not related to tooth age (P > 0.05). In Triadan 06s, pulp horn 6 was always connected to pulp horns 1 and 3 and root canal I. In Triadan 11s, pulp horns 7 and 8 were present in variable constitutions. Mandibular teeth: A common pulp chamber was present in teeth up to 15 years, but most commonly seen in teeth <=5 years. A segmented pulp system was found in 72% of the investigated teeth. Segmentation into separate mesial and distal pulp compartments was most commonly present. Pulp horn 4 coalesced either with the mesial pulp horns 1 and 3 or with the distal pulp horns 2 and 5. CONCLUSIONS: Details of the pulpar anatomy of equine cheek teeth are provided, supporting the continuous advancement in endodontic therapy. Numerous individual configurations of the pulp system were obtained in maxillary cheek teeth, but much less variability was seen in mandibular cheek teeth.

Concepts: Teeth, Tooth, Dental caries, Root canal, Endodontic therapy, Endodontics, Dentin, Animal anatomy


Objectives: The aim of this investigation was to present and evaluate an original method of mini-invasive oral surgery and orthodontics based on 3D images from a computed tomography software (3DNEO(®), 3DNEOVISION). Materials and methods: Three patients with impacted teeth were examined and their data were analyzed with this software based on the “region growing” method. Results: Several clinical interests emerge : locate and visualize precisely the relationships of the impacted tooth with the adjacent anatomical elements under the desired angle, associate/dissociate the different elements of the 3D scene, measure the distances, calculate the axes of traction, materialize the way of traction and the optimal point for bonding, prepare virtually the surgical exposure and orthodontic treatment plan. Conclusion: This 3D method might provide information for improved diagnosis and treatment plans in order to ultimately result in more successful treatment outcomes and better care for patients.

Concepts: Surgery, Medical imaging, Physician, Tooth, Dentistry, Orthodontics, Plan, Dentistry branches


The goal of this study was to examine the adhesive interface of pulp tissue to investigate subclinical failures after direct pulp capping (DPC) of human teeth by using a dentin adhesive system.

Concepts: Teeth, Tooth, Dentin, Pulp, Odontoblast


The authors compared the local anesthetic efficacy and safety of an intranasally administered formulation of tetracaine and oxymetazoline (K305) with placebo in adult participants undergoing single dental restorative procedures in teeth nos. 4 through 13.

Concepts: Anesthesia, Local anesthesia, Placebo, Teeth, Tooth, Topical anesthetic, Local anesthetic


Restorative procedures are accompanied by a reduction of tooth stability, a decrease of fracture resistance, and an increase in deflection of weakened cusps. The choice between a direct or an indirect restorative technique, mainly in posterior areas, is a challenge, and involves biomechanical, anatomical, functional, esthetic, and financial considerations. In this article, the pros and cons of direct restorations are examined, as well as an analysis of indirect restorations and an overview of dental ceramics. In particular, several clinical uses of lithium disilicate overlays with a circumferential adhesive ferrule effect are proposed: heavily compromised vital teeth with thin walls, cracked teeth, and endodontically treated molars. Clinical procedures are described step by step on the basis of data from scientific literature. In conclusion, the use of lithium disilicate in combination with adhesive technologies can lead to a more conservative, economic, and esthetic approach in the restoration of heavily compromised teeth.

Concepts: Science, Teeth, Tooth, Lithium, Chess, Lithium pharmacology, Ceramic, Dental restoration


Oral diseases are a health problem worldwide. Differences in oral health status may vary with geographical locations, but also within the same country and between groups with different social backgrounds. The specific aims were to describe secular trends in oral health status regarding number of remaining teeth and also to describe differences in socio-economic status, among 38- and 50-year-old women, over a 36-year period.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Socioeconomic status, Sociology, Teeth, Tooth, Social status


Sub-micron particles may assist in the delivery of compounds into dentine tubules. The surface interactions of the particles with dentine may prevent them from entering the tubules. The aim of this study is to investigate whether silica particles, treated with surfactants improves dentine tubules occlusion using both artificial and human tooth models METHODS: : Spherical silica particles (size 130 to 810 nm) bearing an encapsulated ruthenium luminescent complex were coated with the following surfactants: Zonyl® FSA, Triton® X-100 and Tween20®. The particles were prepared as 0.004% w/v and 0.04%w/v solutions with deionized water and were applied to the surface of; (1) in vitro model of PET ThinCert cell culture inserts; (2) 0.1mm thick sections of human molar teeth.

Concepts: Cell, Water, Following, Model, Teeth, Tooth, Solution, The Delivery


The objectives of this study were to determine whether the addition of milk to tea reduces the ability of tea to stain extracted human teeth and, if so, to ascertain the component of milk that is responsible for milk’s stain reducing properties.

Concepts: Teeth, Tooth, Animal anatomy


Most of the morphological features recognized in hominin teeth, particularly the topography of the occlusal surface, are generally interpreted as an evolutionary functional adaptation for mechanical food processing. In this respect, we can also expect that the general architecture of a tooth reflects a response to withstand the high stresses produced during masticatory loadings. Here we use an engineering approach, finite element analysis (FEA), with an advanced loading concept derived from individual occlusal wear information to evaluate whether some dental traits usually found in hominin and extant great ape molars, such as the trigonid crest, the entoconid-hypoconulid crest and the protostylid have important biomechanical implications. For this purpose, FEA was applied to 3D digital models of three Gorillagorilla lower second molars (M2) differing in wear stages. Our results show that in unworn and slightly worn M2s tensile stresses concentrate in the grooves of the occlusal surface. In such condition, the trigonid and the entoconid-hypoconulid crests act to reinforce the crown locally against stresses produced along the mesiodistal groove. Similarly, the protostylid is shaped like a buttress to suffer the high tensile stresses concentrated in the deep buccal groove. These dental traits are less functional in the worn M2, because tensile stresses decrease physiologically in the crown with progressing wear due to the enlargement of antagonistic contact areas and changes in loading direction from oblique to nearly parallel direction to the dental axis. This suggests that the wear process might have a crucial influence in the evolution and structural adaptation of molars enabling to endure bite stresses and reduce tooth failure throughout the lifetime of an individual.

Concepts: Finite element method, Biomechanics, Hominidae, Teeth, Tooth, Tribology, Surface engineering, Wear