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Concept: Tony Blair


The special relationship between migraine and epilepsy has been recognized for centuries and was formally acknowledged by Gowers in his 1906 lecture “Borderland of Epilepsy.” The term migralepsy was introduced by Lennox and Lennox in 1960, with multiple cases described in the literature since that time. In the ensuing years, the relationship between migraine and epilepsy has proven complex. The 2 conditions have been found to be comorbid with each other, suggesting a common underlying mechanism or genetic tendency. Specific diseases with both phenotypes provide further evidence of a common pathophysiology, and as the mechanism of migraine has been further elucidated, commonalities with seizure have been recognized. The terms “hemicrania epileptica” and “migraine triggered seizure” were defined by the International Headache Society, formalizing the concept that one can lead to the other. However, case reports and case series in the literature reveal that distinguishing between the 2 entities can be challenging. The concept of migralepsy is likely to evolve as greater understanding of both conditions is gained.

Concepts: Epilepsy, NATO, Headaches, Winston Churchill, Tony Blair, Special Relationship, United Kingdom – United States relations, Lennox International


Do print media significantly impact political attitudes and party identification? To examine this question, we draw on a rare quasi-natural experiment that occurred when The Sun, a right-leaning UK tabloid, shifted its support to the Labour party in 1997 and back to the Conservative party in 2010. We compared changes in party identification and political attitudes among Sun readers with non-readers and other newspaper readerships. We find that The Sun’s endorsements were associated with a significant increase in readers' support for Labour in 1997, approximately 525,000 votes, and its switch back was associated with about 550,000 extra votes for the Conservatives in 2010. Although we observed changes in readers' party preference, there was no effect on underlying political preferences. The magnitude of these changes, about 2% of the popular vote, would have been unable to alter the outcome of the 1997 General Election, but may have affected the 2010 Election.

Concepts: United Kingdom, Conservative Party, Tony Blair, Labour Party, Margaret Thatcher, United Kingdom general election, 1992, John Major, Neil Kinnock


The United Kingdom was at war in Iraq and Afghanistan for more than a decade. Despite assertions regarding advances in military trauma care during these wars, thus far, no studies have examined survival in UK troops during this sustained period of combat. The aims of this study were to examine temporal changes of injury patterns defined by body region and survival in a population of UK Military casualties between 2003 and 2012 in Iraq and Afghanistan.

Concepts: United Kingdom, England, Canada, NATO, British Army, Iraq War, Royal Air Force, Tony Blair


Invasive cardiac care is the preferred method of treatment for patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) complicated by cardiogenic shock (CS). In Nova Scotia, invasive cardiac care is only available in Halifax at the Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre (QEII-HSC).

Concepts: Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom, Canada, Tony Blair, Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, Death of Diana, Princess of Wales, Balmoral Castle, George VI of the United Kingdom


The UK military was continuously engaged in armed conflict in Iraq and Afghanistan between 2003 and 2014, resulting in 629 UK fatalities. Traumatic cardiac arrest (TCA) is a precursor to traumatic death, but data on military outcomes are limited. In order to better inform military treatment protocols, the aim of this study was to define the epidemiology of TCA in the military population with a particular focus on survival rates and injury patterns.

Concepts: Cardiac arrest, United Kingdom, Germany, Canada, NATO, Military of the United States, Armed forces, Tony Blair


The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential benefits of immunonutrition in major abdominal surgery with special regard to subgroups and influence of bias.

Concepts: English-language films, Tony Blair


Extremity injuries predominate in warfare, however their nature, and overall burden to the individual and the health service is yet to be characterised for the UK military in the recent conflicts of Iraq and Afghanistan.

Concepts: United Kingdom, Germany, Canada, NATO, Iran, Parliamentary system, Royal Air Force, Tony Blair


The US Military has achieved remarkable success in improving survival for our nation’s combat wounded throughout the 14 years of conflict in Iraq and Afghanistan. For the prehospital phase of care, where most combat fatalities occur, these advances have been embodied in Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC.) TCCC is a set of evidence-based, best-practice, prehospital trauma care guidelines that are customized for use on the battlefield. The TCCC Guidelines have been updated on an ongoing basis over the last 15 years through the work of the Committee on TCCC and the TCCC Working Group. The process of developing improvements in battlefield trauma care and advocating for them to be implemented throughout the US Military was lengthy, challenging, and evolutionary. This paper describes the major leadership lessons learned in the TCCC effort during the 20 years from its inception to the present.

Concepts: Present, Time, President of the United States, Modern history, United States Army, George W. Bush, United States Department of Defense, Tony Blair


To examine how population-level socioeconomic health inequalities developed during childhood, for children born at the turn of the 21st century and who grew up with major initiatives to tackle health inequalities (under the New Labour Government).

Concepts: United Kingdom, New York City, Wales, 21st century, House of Lords, Conservative Party, Tony Blair, Labour Party


We retrospectively audited the records of 708 patients who presented with the diagnosis of fractured mandible between January 2009 and July 2013 at the Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham. We assessed the different factors that may have altered their outcomes, and found that delay before definitive fixation caused no harm in either the short or the long term.

Concepts: Pathology, Hospital, Physician, Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom, Tony Blair, The Queen, Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon, Sylvia Syms