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Concept: Tomography


We acquire the first experimental 3-D tomographic images with magnetic particle imaging (MPI) using projection reconstruction methodology, which is similar to algorithms employed in X-ray computed tomography. The primary advantage of projection reconstruction methods is an order of magnitude increase in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) due to averaging. We first derive the point spread function, resolution, number of projections required, and the SNR gain in projection reconstruction MPI. We then design and construct the first scanner capable of gathering the necessary data for nonaliased projection reconstruction and experimentally verify our mathematical predictions. We demonstrate that filtered backprojection in MPI is experimentally feasible and illustrate the SNR and resolution improvements with projection reconstruction. Finally, we show that MPI is capable of producing three dimensional imaging volumes in both phantoms and postmortem mice.

Concepts: Medical imaging, Radiography, Tomographic reconstruction, Dimension, Euclidean space, Tomography, Virtopsy, Signal-to-noise ratio


: To study the choroidal thickness profile using high-penetration optical coherence tomography in central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC).

Concepts: Optics, Ophthalmology, Tomography, Central serous retinopathy


BACKGROUND: There are several methods that may be used to confirm the status of rib cartilage, such as physical examinations or chest radiography, for subjects with microtia. However, these methods are limited because of clinicians' inability to gain accurate information about the rib cartilage. We performed 3-dimensional chest computed tomography to preoperatively evaluate the accuracy of rib cartilage imaging. METHODS: A total of 37 patients preparing for auricular reconstruction using a rib cartilage graft underwent preoperative 3-dimensional rib cage computed tomography (3-D rib CT). The 3-D rib CT was performed in cases of secondary revisional reconstruction, those with a history of surgery using rib cartilage, in those with a history of trauma related to the rib cage, older patients with question of calcification of rib cartilage, or those with a suspected rib cartilage anomaly on physical examination. Preoperatively, the appropriateness of using the rib cartilage were evaluated. RESULTS: With the aid of the 3-D rib CT, successful autogenous auricular reconstruction was achieved in 36 patients. Framework fabrication in combination with a porous polyethylene implant and autogenous rib cartilage was performed in the remaining patient as planned preoperatively. By analyzing the 3-D rib CT image preoperatively, auricular reconstruction using a recycled rib cartilage graft with newly harvested rib cartilage was performed successfully in 13 of 14 secondary revisional cases. Based on preoperative CT images, modified surgical planning in terms of cartilage harvest and framework fabrication was needed in 8 of 11 patients who had a history of operation using rib cartilage and in 3 of 5 subjects with suspected rib cage anomalies on physical examination. Successful reconstruction was achieved using the modified surgical plan. CONCLUSIONS: A preoperative 3-D rib CT helps in surgical planning for autogenous auricular reconstruction for microtia, especially in patients with suspicious rib cartilage status.

Concepts: Hospital, Surgery, Medical imaging, Radiography, Tomographic reconstruction, Tomography, Physical examination, Human rib cage


In this article, we demonstrate the application of a new compressed sensing three-dimensional reconstruction algorithm for electron tomography that increases the accuracy of morphological characterization of nanostructured materials such as nanocrystalline iron oxide particles. A powerful feature of the algorithm is an anisotropic total variation norm for the L1 minimization during algebraic reconstruction that effectively reduces the elongation artifacts caused by limited angle sampling during electron tomography. The algorithm provides faithful morphologies that have not been feasible with existing techniques.

Concepts: Medical imaging, Nanomaterials, Tomography, Reconstruction algorithm, Discrete tomography, American Civil War, Total variation


To study the choroidal thickness in eyes with inferior posterior staphyloma (IPS) and to elucidate its role in the development of macular complications.

Concepts: Optics, Medical imaging, Eye, Ophthalmology, Tomography, Staphyloma


Objective: The purpose of this study was to describe computed tomography (CT) features of the ununited anconeal process and relate them with the following elbow dysplasia signs: medial coronoid disease, medial humeral condyle changes, osteoarthritis (OA), and radioulnar incongruence. Methods: Computed tomographic images of dogs older than six months with an ununited anconeal process were evaluated (n = 13). Ununited anconeal process features were described as being complete or incomplete, and the degree of displacement, volume, and presence of cysts and sclerosis were also evaluated. Medial coronoid disease was defined as an irregular medial coronoid process shape, presence of sclerosis and fragmentation. Medial humeral condyle changes were defined as subchondral bone flattening, lucencies, and sclerosis. Osteoarthritis was graded depending on the osteophytes size. Radioulnar incongruence was measured on a sagittal view at the base of the medial coronoid process. Results: Eleven elbows had a complete and two had an incomplete ununited anconeal process. All ununited anconeal processes had cystic and sclerotic lesions. Seven ununited anconeal processes were displaced and six were non-displaced. Mean ununited anconeal process volume was 1.35 cm3 (0.61 cm³ - 2.08 cm³). Twelve elbows had signs of medial coronoid disease (4 of them with a fragmented medial coronoid process), and one elbow did not show any evidence of medial coronoid disease. Ten elbows had medial humeral condyle changes. One elbow had grade 1 OA, seven elbows had grade 2, and five elbows grade 3. All elbows had radioulnar incongruence: three elbows had a negative and 10 elbows had a positive radioulnar incongruence. Mean radioulnar incongruence was 1.49 mm (0.63 mm - 2.61 mm). Computed tomographic findings were similar in the majority of the elbows studied: complete ununited anconeal processes with signs of medial coronoid disease, positive radioulnar incongruence, high grade of OA, sclerotic medial humeral condyle changes, and large ununited anconeal process volumes. Clinical significance: Incomplete small ununited anconeal process volumes could be associated with a lower incidence of medial coronoid disease or medial humeral condyle changes. We recommend performing preoperative CT of elbows with an ununited anconeal process to evaluate concurrent lesions.

Concepts: Tomographic reconstruction, Humerus, Elbow, Tomography, Second grade, Brachialis muscle, Brachioradialis, Coronoid process of the ulna


AIM: The aim of our study was to assess improvements in spatial resolution and noise control from the application of the Astonish resolution recovery algorithm for single photon emission computed tomography imaging. Secondary aims were to compare acquisitions made with low-energy general purpose collimators with those obtained using low-energy high-resolution collimators in this context and evaluate the potential of a finer matrix to improve image quality further. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A Tc-filled Jaszczak phantom with hot spheres was used to assess contrast and noise. A National Electrical Manufacturers Association triple line source single photon emission computed tomography resolution phantom was used to measure spatial resolution. Acquisitions were made using both low-energy high-resolution and low-energy general purpose collimators. RESULTS: Compared with standard ordered subsets expectation maximization reconstructions, the resolution recovery algorithm resulted in a higher spatial resolution (8 vs. 14 mm full-width at half-maximum) leading to reduced partial volume effects in the smaller Jaszczak spheres. Higher image contrast was achieved alongside lower levels of noise. An edge enhancement artefact was observed in the resolution recovery corrected images. An overestimate of the target-to-background activity was also observed for the larger spheres. CONCLUSION: The use of such an algorithm results in images characterized by increased spatial resolution and reduced noise. However, small sources of the order of 2-3 cm can be significantly overenhanced.

Concepts: Estimation theory, Optics, Medical imaging, Tomography, IMAGE, Single photon emission computed tomography, Reconstruction algorithm, National Electrical Manufacturers Association


To compare the anterior chamber and anterior chamber angle measurements obtained with spectral-domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) and time-domain AS-OCT.

Concepts: Optics, Medical imaging, Tomography, Angle


We present an indirect two-qubit parity meter in planar circuit quantum electrodynamics, realized by discrete interaction with an ancilla and a subsequent projective ancilla measurement with a dedicated, dispersively coupled resonator. Quantum process tomography and successful entanglement by measurement demonstrate that the meter is intrinsically quantum nondemolition. Separate interaction and measurement steps allow the execution of subsequent data-qubit operations in parallel with ancilla measurement, offering time savings over continuous schemes.

Concepts: Time, Electromagnetism, Quantum mechanics, Quantum field theory, Quantum electrodynamics, Tomography, Richard Feynman, Quantum tomography


The purpose of this study was to determine whether the outer nuclear layer (ONL) deformation detected by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) is correlated with visual acuity before and after surgery in patients with idiopathic epiretinal membrane (ERM).

Concepts: Optics, Retina, Eye, Photoreceptor cell, Visual acuity, Ophthalmology, Tomography, Epiretinal membrane