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Concept: Tire


Because tires contain approximately 1-2% zinc by weight, zinc leaching is an environmental concern associated with civil engineering applications of tire crumb rubber. An assessment of zinc leaching data from 14 studies in the published literature indicates that increasing zinc leaching is associated with lower pH and longer leaching times, but the data display a wide range of zinc concentrations, and do not address the effect of crumb rubber size or the dynamics of zinc leaching during flow through porous crumb rubber. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of crumb rubber size using the Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure (SPLP), the effect of exposure time using quiescent batch leaching tests, and the dynamics of zinc leaching using column tests. Results indicate that zinc leaching from tire crumb rubber increases with smaller crumb rubber and longer exposure time. Results from SPLP and quiescent batch leaching tests are interpreted with a single-parameter leaching model that predicts a constant rate of zinc leaching up to 96 hr. Breakthrough curves from column tests displayed an initial pulse of elevated zinc concentration (~3 mg/L) before settling down to a steady-state value (~0.2 mg/L), and were modeled with the software package HYDRUS-1D. Washing crumb rubber reduces this initial pulse but does not change the steady-state value. No leaching experiment significantly reduced the reservoir of zinc in the crumb rubber.

Concepts: Time, Concentration, Shutter speed, Synthetic rubber, Vulcanization, The Crumbs, Tire, Crumb rubber


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of wheelchair mass, solid vs. pneumatic tires and tire pressure on physical strain and wheelchair propulsion technique. 11 Able-bodied participants performed 14 submaximal exercise blocks on a treadmill with a fixed speed (1.11m/s) within 3 weeks to determine the effect of tire pressure (100%, 75%, 50%, 25% of the recommended value), wheelchair mass (0kg, 5kg, or 10kg extra) and tire type (pneumatic vs. solid). All test conditions (except pneumatic vs. solid) were performed with and without instrumented measurement wheels. Outcome measures were power output (PO), physical strain (heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake (VO2), gross mechanical efficiency (ME)) and propulsion technique (timing, force application). At 25% tire pressure PO and subsequently VO2 were higher compared to 100% tire pressure. Furthermore, a higher tire pressure led to a longer cycle time and contact angle and subsequently lower push frequency. Extra mass did not lead to an increase in PO, physical strain or propulsion technique. Solid tires led to a higher PO and physical strain. The solid tire effect was amplified by increased mass (tire×mass interaction). In contrast to extra mass, tire pressure and tire type have an effect on PO, physical strain or propulsion technique of steady-state wheelchair propulsion. As expected, it is important to optimize tire pressure and tire type.

Concepts: Wheel, Tire, Tires


Abstract Purpose: This study aimed to first investigate synchronous (SYN) versus asynchronous (ASY) mode of propulsion and, second, investigate the wheel camber effects on sprinting performance as well as temporal parameters. Method: Seven wheelchair basketball players performed four maximal eight-second sprints on a wheelchair ergometer. They repeated the test according to two modes of propulsion (SYN and ASY) and two wheel cambers (9° and 15°). Results: The mean maximal velocity and push power output was greater in the synchronous mode compared to the asynchronous mode for both camber angles. However, the fluctuation in the velocity profile is inferior for ASY versus SYN mode for both camber angles. Greater push time/cycle time (Pt/Ct) and arm frequency (AF) for synchronous mode versus asynchronous mode and inversely, lesser Ct and rest time (Rt) values for the synchronous mode, for which greater velocity were observed. Conclusions: SYN mode leads to better performance than ASY mode in terms of maximal propulsion velocity. However, ASY propulsion allows greater continuity of the hand-rim force application, reducing fluctuations in the velocity profile. The camber angle had no effect on ASY and SYN mean maximal velocity and push power output. Implications for Rehabilitation The study of wheelchair propulsion strategies is important for better understanding physiological and biomechanical impacts of wheelchair propulsion for individuals with disabilities. From a kinematical point of view, this study highlights synchronous mode of propulsion to be more efficient, with regards to mean maximal velocity reaching during maximal sprinting exercises. Even if this study focuses on well-trained wheelchair athletes, results from this study could complement the knowledge on the physiological and biomechanical adaptations to wheelchair propulsion and therefore, might be interesting for wheelchair modifications for purposes of rehabilitation.

Concepts: Arithmetic mean, Velocity, Angle, Basketball, Tire, Camber angle, Wheelchair basketball, Caster angle


In this study, the presence of hazardous organic chemicals in surfaces containing recycled rubber tires is investigated. Direct material analyses using solvent extraction, as well as SPME analysis of the vapour phase above the sample, were carried out. Twenty-one rubber mulch samples were collected from nine different playgrounds. In addition, seven commercial samples of recycled rubber pavers were acquired in a local store of a multinational company. All samples were extracted by ultrasound energy, followed by analysis of the extract by GC-MS. The analysis confirmed the presence of a large number of hazardous substances including PAHs, phthalates, antioxidants (e.g. BHT, phenols), benzothiazole and derivatives, among other chemicals. The study evidences the high content of toxic chemicals in these recycled materials. The concentration of PAHs in the commercial pavers was extremely high, reaching values up to 1%. In addition, SPME studies of the vapour phase above the samples confirm the volatilisation of many of those organic compounds. Uses of recycled rubber tires, especially those targeting play areas and other facilities for children, should be a matter of regulatory concern.

Concepts: Chemistry, Organic compound, Solubility, Tire, Rubber mulch


The synthesis of a new nitroxide crown ether (8) and its use as the wheel in a bistable [2]rotaxane containing dialkylammonium and 4,4`-bipyridinium recognition sites, is reported. The synthesis of 8 was achieved by the sequential addition of substituted phenyl groups to nitrone derivatives leading to the preferential formation of the cis stereoisomer. Due to charge-dipolar interactions between the nitroxide unit and bipyridinium moiety, it was possible to probe the movement of the macrocycle between the two molecular stations of the [2]rotaxane after addition of a base by measuring the nitrogen hyperfine splittings in the corresponding EPR spectra. The equilibrium constant for the complexation of dibenzyl viologen by macrocycle 8 was also determined by EPR titration.

Concepts: Oxygen, Ether, PH, Functional groups, Crown ether, Tire, Macrocycles, Rosanne Cash


To assess the clinicopathological and therapeutic features of patients with low (≥1000 to <10 000 Bühlmann Titre Units) (BTU), medium (10 000-70 000) or high (≥70 000) anti-myelin-associated glycoprotein (anti-MAG) antibody titres.

Concepts: Antibody, Glycoproteins, Glycoprotein, Tire


A large number of end-of-life tires (ELTs) were sampled and classified by type, age and origin to obtain recycled rubber samples representative of the materials placed on the Italian market. The selected recycled tire rubber samples were physically and chemically characterized and a chemometric approach was used to determine correlations. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) content was correlated to the aromaticity index and a model was built to establish the H-Bay aromaticity index (H-Bay) from the PAH concentrations. ELT of different origin and age produced in non-European countries generally had higher PAH content and a higher H-Bay index. H-Bay values of all the samples were lower than the REACH limits and old tires had higher aromatic content than recent ones, possibly due to the replacement of aromatic oils in tire production.

Concepts: Chemistry, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, Benzene, Aromatic hydrocarbon, Aromaticity, Naphthalene, Tire, Tire recycling


Force plates are often incorporated into motion capture systems for the calculation of joint kinetic variables and other data. This project aimed to create a system that could be used to check the dynamic performance of force plate in situ. The proposed solution involved the design and development of an eccentrically loaded wheel mounted on a weighted frame. The frame was designed to hold a wheel mounted in two orthogonal positions. The wheel was placed on the force plate and spun. A VICON™ motion analysis system captured the positional data of the markers placed around the rim of the wheel which was used to create a simulated force profile, and the force profile was dependent on spin speed. The root mean square error between the simulated force profile and the force plate measurement was calculated. For nine trials conducted, the root mean square error between the two simultaneous measures of force was calculated. The difference between the force profiles in the x- and y-directions is approximately 2%. The difference in the z-direction was under 0.5%. The eccentrically loaded wheel produced a predictable centripetal force in the plane of the wheel which varied in direction as the wheel was spun and magnitude dependent on the spin speed. There are three important advantages to the eccentrically loaded wheel: (1) it does not rely on force measurements made from other devices, (2) the tests require only 15 min to complete per force plate and (3) the forces exerted on the plate are similar to those of paediatric gait.

Concepts: Force, Standard deviation, Root mean square, Mean squared error, Wheel, Root mean square deviation, Tire, Rim


In this paper, an optimal longitudinal slip ratio system for real-time identification of electric vehicle (EV) with motored wheels is proposed based on the adhesion between tire and road surface. First and foremost, the optimal longitudinal slip rate torque control can be identified in real time by calculating the derivative and slip rate of the adhesion coefficient. Secondly, the vehicle speed estimation method is also brought. Thirdly, an ideal vehicle simulation model is proposed to verify the algorithm with simulation, and we find that the slip ratio corresponds to the detection of the adhesion limit in real time. Finally, the proposed strategy is applied to traction control system (TCS). The results showed that the method can effectively identify the state of wheel and calculate the optimal slip ratio without wheel speed sensor; in the meantime, it can improve the accelerated stability of electric vehicle with traction control system (TCS).

Concepts: Algorithm, Mathematics, Calculus, Wheel, Automobile, Tire, Formula One, Anti-lock braking system


Tires equipped with sensors, the so-called “intelligent tires”, can provide vital information for control systems, drivers and external users. In this research, tire dynamic strain characteristics in cornering conditions are collected and analysed in relation to the variation of tire working conditions, such as inflation pressure, rolling speed, vertical load and slip angle. An experimental tire strain-based prototype and an indoor tire test rig are used to demonstrate the suitability of strain sensors to establish relations between strain data and lateral force. The results of experiments show that strain values drop sharply when lateral force is decreasing, which can be used to predict tire slip conditions. As a first approach to estimate some tire working conditions, such as the slip angle and vertical load, a fuzzy logic method has been developed. The simulation and test results confirm the feasibility of strain sensors and the proposed computational model to solve the non-linearity characteristics of the tires' parameters and turn tires into a source of useful information.

Concepts: Experiment, Problem solving, Slip, Control system, Fuzzy logic, Tire, Computational linguistics, Tires