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Concept: Tire


Because tires contain approximately 1-2% zinc by weight, zinc leaching is an environmental concern associated with civil engineering applications of tire crumb rubber. An assessment of zinc leaching data from 14 studies in the published literature indicates that increasing zinc leaching is associated with lower pH and longer leaching times, but the data display a wide range of zinc concentrations, and do not address the effect of crumb rubber size or the dynamics of zinc leaching during flow through porous crumb rubber. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of crumb rubber size using the Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure (SPLP), the effect of exposure time using quiescent batch leaching tests, and the dynamics of zinc leaching using column tests. Results indicate that zinc leaching from tire crumb rubber increases with smaller crumb rubber and longer exposure time. Results from SPLP and quiescent batch leaching tests are interpreted with a single-parameter leaching model that predicts a constant rate of zinc leaching up to 96 hr. Breakthrough curves from column tests displayed an initial pulse of elevated zinc concentration (~3 mg/L) before settling down to a steady-state value (~0.2 mg/L), and were modeled with the software package HYDRUS-1D. Washing crumb rubber reduces this initial pulse but does not change the steady-state value. No leaching experiment significantly reduced the reservoir of zinc in the crumb rubber.

Concepts: Crumb rubber, Synthetic rubber, Concentration, Tire, The Crumbs, Shutter speed, Vulcanization, Time


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of wheelchair mass, solid vs. pneumatic tires and tire pressure on physical strain and wheelchair propulsion technique. 11 Able-bodied participants performed 14 submaximal exercise blocks on a treadmill with a fixed speed (1.11m/s) within 3 weeks to determine the effect of tire pressure (100%, 75%, 50%, 25% of the recommended value), wheelchair mass (0kg, 5kg, or 10kg extra) and tire type (pneumatic vs. solid). All test conditions (except pneumatic vs. solid) were performed with and without instrumented measurement wheels. Outcome measures were power output (PO), physical strain (heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake (VO2), gross mechanical efficiency (ME)) and propulsion technique (timing, force application). At 25% tire pressure PO and subsequently VO2 were higher compared to 100% tire pressure. Furthermore, a higher tire pressure led to a longer cycle time and contact angle and subsequently lower push frequency. Extra mass did not lead to an increase in PO, physical strain or propulsion technique. Solid tires led to a higher PO and physical strain. The solid tire effect was amplified by increased mass (tire×mass interaction). In contrast to extra mass, tire pressure and tire type have an effect on PO, physical strain or propulsion technique of steady-state wheelchair propulsion. As expected, it is important to optimize tire pressure and tire type.

Concepts: Wheel, Tires, Tire


Abstract Purpose: This study aimed to first investigate synchronous (SYN) versus asynchronous (ASY) mode of propulsion and, second, investigate the wheel camber effects on sprinting performance as well as temporal parameters. Method: Seven wheelchair basketball players performed four maximal eight-second sprints on a wheelchair ergometer. They repeated the test according to two modes of propulsion (SYN and ASY) and two wheel cambers (9° and 15°). Results: The mean maximal velocity and push power output was greater in the synchronous mode compared to the asynchronous mode for both camber angles. However, the fluctuation in the velocity profile is inferior for ASY versus SYN mode for both camber angles. Greater push time/cycle time (Pt/Ct) and arm frequency (AF) for synchronous mode versus asynchronous mode and inversely, lesser Ct and rest time (Rt) values for the synchronous mode, for which greater velocity were observed. Conclusions: SYN mode leads to better performance than ASY mode in terms of maximal propulsion velocity. However, ASY propulsion allows greater continuity of the hand-rim force application, reducing fluctuations in the velocity profile. The camber angle had no effect on ASY and SYN mean maximal velocity and push power output. Implications for Rehabilitation The study of wheelchair propulsion strategies is important for better understanding physiological and biomechanical impacts of wheelchair propulsion for individuals with disabilities. From a kinematical point of view, this study highlights synchronous mode of propulsion to be more efficient, with regards to mean maximal velocity reaching during maximal sprinting exercises. Even if this study focuses on well-trained wheelchair athletes, results from this study could complement the knowledge on the physiological and biomechanical adaptations to wheelchair propulsion and therefore, might be interesting for wheelchair modifications for purposes of rehabilitation.

Concepts: Angle, Caster angle, Arithmetic mean, Velocity, Basketball, Wheelchair basketball, Tire, Camber angle


In this study, the presence of hazardous organic chemicals in surfaces containing recycled rubber tires is investigated. Direct material analyses using solvent extraction, as well as SPME analysis of the vapour phase above the sample, were carried out. Twenty-one rubber mulch samples were collected from nine different playgrounds. In addition, seven commercial samples of recycled rubber pavers were acquired in a local store of a multinational company. All samples were extracted by ultrasound energy, followed by analysis of the extract by GC-MS. The analysis confirmed the presence of a large number of hazardous substances including PAHs, phthalates, antioxidants (e.g. BHT, phenols), benzothiazole and derivatives, among other chemicals. The study evidences the high content of toxic chemicals in these recycled materials. The concentration of PAHs in the commercial pavers was extremely high, reaching values up to 1%. In addition, SPME studies of the vapour phase above the samples confirm the volatilisation of many of those organic compounds. Uses of recycled rubber tires, especially those targeting play areas and other facilities for children, should be a matter of regulatory concern.

Concepts: Solubility, Tire, Chemistry, Organic compound, Rubber mulch


We developed novel size-complementary molecular and macromolecular rotaxanes using a 2,6-dimethylphenyl terminal as the axle-end-cap group in dibenzo-24-crown-8-ether (DB24C8)-based rotaxanes, where the 2,6-dimethylphenyl group was found to be less bulky than the 3,5-dimethylphenyl group. A series of molecular and macromolecular [2]rotaxanes that bear a 2,6-dimethylphenyl group as the axle-end-cap were synthesized using unsubstituted and fluorine-substituted DB24C8. Base-induced decomposition into their constituent components confirmed the occurrence of deslipping, which supports the size-complementarity of these rotaxanes. The deslipping rate was independent of the axle length but dependent on the DB24C8 substituents. A kinetic study indicated the rate-determining step to be the step that the wheel is getting over the end-cap group, and the deslipping proceeded via a hopping-over mechanism. Finally, the present deslipping behavior was applied to a stimulus-degradable polymer as an example for the versatile utility of this concept in the context of stimulus-responsive materials.

Concepts: Tire, Present, Wheel and axle, Time, Molecule, Axle, Wheel


Tires are a key sub-system of vehicles that have a big responsibility for comfort, fuel consumption and traffic safety. However, current tires are just passive rubber elements which do not contribute actively to improve the driving experience or vehicle safety. The lack of information from the tire during driving gives cause for developing an intelligent tire. Therefore, the aim of the intelligent tire is to monitor tire working conditions in real-time, providing useful information to other systems and becoming an active system. In this paper, tire tread deformation is measured to provide a strong experimental base with different experiments and test results by means of a tire fitted with sensors. Tests under different working conditions such as vertical load or slip angle have been carried out with an indoor tire test rig. The experimental data analysis shows the strong relation that exists between lateral force and the maximum tensile and compressive strain peaks when the tire is not working at the limit of grip. In the last section, an estimation system from experimental data has been developed and implemented in Simulink to show the potential of strain sensors for developing intelligent tire systems, obtaining as major results a signal to detect tire’s loss of grip and estimations of the lateral friction coefficient.

Concepts: Data, Statistics, Estimation, Force, Test method, Tire, Tread, Slip


A new methodology for the estimation of tyre-contact forces is presented. The new procedure is an evolution of a previous method based on harmonic elimination techniques developed with the aim of producing low cost dynamometric wheels. While the original method required stress measurement in many rim radial lines and the fulfillment of some rigid conditions of symmetry, the new methodology described in this article significantly reduces the number of required measurement points and greatly relaxes symmetry constraints. This can be done without compromising the estimation error level. The reduction of the number of measuring radial lines increases the ripple of demodulated signals due to non-eliminated higher order harmonics. Therefore, it is necessary to adapt the calibration procedure to this new scenario. A new calibration procedure that takes into account angular position of the wheel is completely described. This new methodology is tested on a standard commercial five-spoke car wheel. Obtained results are qualitatively compared to those derived from the application of former methodology leading to the conclusion that the new method is both simpler and more robust due to the reduction in the number of measuring points, while contact forces' estimation error remains at an acceptable level.

Concepts: Quantity, Test method, Rim, Wheels, Metrology, Measurement, Tire, Wheel


Due to the high concern generated in the last years about the safety of recycled tire rubber used for recreational sports surfaces, this study aims at evaluating the presence of forty organic compounds including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phthalates, adipates, vulcanisation additives and antioxidants in recycled tire crumb of synthetic turf football fields. Ultrasound Assisted Extraction (UAE) was successfully employed to extract the target compounds from the crumb rubber, and analysis was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The transfer of the target chemicals from the crumb rubber to the runoff water and to the air above the rubber surface has also been evaluated employing solid-phase microextraction (SPME). Samples from fifteen football fields were analysed, and the results revealed the presence of 24 of the 40 target compounds, including 14 of the 16 EPA PAHs, with total concentrations up to 50 μg g-1. Heavy metals such as Cd, Cr and Pb were also found. A partial transfer of organic compounds to the air and runoff water was also demonstrated. The analysis of rain water collected directly from the football field, showed the presence of a high number of the target compounds at concentrations reaching above 100 μg L-1. The environmental risk arising from the burning of crumb rubber tires has been assessed, as well, analysing the crumb rubber, and the air and water in contact with this material, showing a substantial increase both of the number and concentration of the hazardous chemicals.

Concepts: Lead, Aromaticity, Carbon, Water, Organic chemistry, Water pollution, Tire, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon


Suicide by hanging inside a motor vehicle is a rare occurrence. A 48-year-old woman suffering from major depression was found having agonal breathing inside her automobile. A 20-mm diameter blue nylon rope was wrapped tightly around her neck, with its other end tied to a nearby wooden fence post. Despite resuscitation attempts, she was declared deceased after several minutes. The vehicle was located in an area with a slight downward slope. The motor was off. It was in neutral gear, with the parking brake disengaged. Consequently, the gravitational forces, attributable to the mass of the vehicle and the declivity of the terrain, caused the rope to tighten.The dynamics fulfill the criteria for a partial hanging, given the difference in height between the point at which the rope was secured to the post and woman’s neck, which in turn presented the typical oblique upward groove.This case, thus, represents a unique mode of partial hanging inside a passenger vehicle, rarely reported in the literature. The relative lack of internal injury is also noteworthy, along with the fact that the victim was discovered while still alive. The latter feature can be explained by the absence of the sudden or violent acceleration forces that can be generated with the engine on.

Concepts: Tire, Motor vehicle, Brake, Wheel, Suicide, Death, Vehicle, Automobile


The synthesis of a new nitroxide crown ether (8) and its use as the wheel in a bistable [2]rotaxane containing dialkylammonium and 4,4`-bipyridinium recognition sites, is reported. The synthesis of 8 was achieved by the sequential addition of substituted phenyl groups to nitrone derivatives leading to the preferential formation of the cis stereoisomer. Due to charge-dipolar interactions between the nitroxide unit and bipyridinium moiety, it was possible to probe the movement of the macrocycle between the two molecular stations of the [2]rotaxane after addition of a base by measuring the nitrogen hyperfine splittings in the corresponding EPR spectra. The equilibrium constant for the complexation of dibenzyl viologen by macrocycle 8 was also determined by EPR titration.

Concepts: Macrocycles, PH, Rosanne Cash, Tire, Oxygen, Ether, Crown ether, Functional groups