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Concept: Thymidine kinase 1


Thymidine kinase (TK1) is a biomarker that correlates well with diagnosis and prognosis in certain canine cancers. Canine C-reactive protein (cCRP) is a widely accepted marker of inflammation correlated with increased risk and severity of various diseases. We evaluated serum TK1 and cCRP concentrations in apparently healthy dogs (n = 360). All dogs were followed up for a minimum of 6 months by health questionnaire. All dogs with cancer were identified using a proprietary dual-biomarker algorithm [termed Neoplasia Index (NI)]. Specificity of positive NI is 0.91 and high positive is 0.98. All-cause mortality was 20% in dogs with elevated cCRP and 3% in dogs with low cCRP. The performance of serum TK1 and cCRP as tools for screening for occult cancer is improved when evaluated together. Serum TK1 and cCRP (unified in the NI) are useful in the screening of occult canine cancer. cCRP is useful in screening for other serious diseases.

Concepts: Inflammation, Epidemiology, Cancer, Disease, Infectious disease, C-reactive protein, Thymidine kinase, Thymidine kinase 1


Thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) is a tumor biomarker in human malignancies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic efficiency of this marker for lung cancer using the combined analysis of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cytokeratin-19 fragment (CYFRA21-1), neuron specific enolase (NSE) and TK1.

Concepts: Cancer, Metastasis, Lung cancer, Cancer staging, Tobacco smoking, Thymidine kinase, Enolase 2, Thymidine kinase 1


Thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) is a cell cycle-regulated enzyme with peak expression in the S phase during DNA synthesis, and it is an attractive biomarker of cell proliferation. Serum TK1 activity has demonstrated prognostic value in patients with early-stage breast cancer. Because cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 (CDK4/6) inhibitors prevent G1/S transition, we hypothesized that serum TK1 could be a biomarker for CDK4/6 inhibitors. We examined the drug-induced change in serum TK1 as well as its correlation with change in tumor Ki-67 levels in patients enrolled in the NeoPalAna trial ( identifier NCT01723774).

Concepts: DNA, Cancer, Breast cancer, Bacteria, Adenosine triphosphate, Cell cycle, Thymidine kinase, Thymidine kinase 1


Tomato thymidine kinase 1 (ToTK1) is a deoxyribonucleoside kinase (dNK) that has been subject to study because of its potential to phosphorylate the nucleoside analogue 3-azido-2,3-dideoxythymidine (azidothymidine, AZT) equally well as its natural substrate thymidine (dThd). The combination of ToTK1 and AZT has been tested in two animal studies for its efficiency and use in suicide gene therapy for malignant glioma. The determination of the 3D structure of ToTK1 might shed light on the structure-function relationships of nucleoside activation by this enzyme and thereby show routes toward further improvement of ToTK1 and other TK1-like dNKs for suicide gene therapy. Here we report the successful expression of both full-length ToTK1 and a C-terminal truncated ToTK1 in Spodoptera frugiperda and Trichoplusia ni insect cells using the baculovirus expression vector system. This constitutes a further step on the road to determine the 3D structure of the first TK1 of plant origin, but also an enzyme with great potential for dNK-mediated suicide gene therapy.

Concepts: DNA, Gene, Molecular biology, Adenosine triphosphate, Enzyme, Thymidine kinase, Baculovirus, Thymidine kinase 1


Remote optical detection and imaging of specific tumor-related biomarkers and simultaneous activation of therapy according to the expression level of the biomarkers in tumor site with theranostic probes should be an effective modality for treatment of cancers. Herein, an upconversion nanobeacon (UCNPs-MB/Dox) is proposed as a new theranostic nanoprobe to ratiometrically detect and visualize the thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) mRNA that can simultaneously trigger the Dox release to activate the chemotherapy accordingly. UCNPs-MB/Dox is constructed with the conjugation of a TK1 mRNA-specific molecular beacon (MB) bearing a quencher (BHQ-1) and an alkene handle modified upconversion nanoparticle (UCNP) through click reaction and subsequently loading with a chemotherapy drug (Dox). With this nanobeacon, quantitative ratiometric upconversion detection of the target with high sensitivity and selectivity as well as the target triggered Dox release in vitro is demonstrated. The sensitive and selective ratiometric detection and imaging of TK1 mRNA under the irradiation of near infrared light (980 nm) and the mRNA-dependent release of Dox for chemotherapy in the tumor MCF-7 cells and A549 cells are also shown. This work provides a smart and robust platform for gene-related tumor theranostics.

Concepts: DNA, Cancer, Breast cancer, Laser, Chemotherapy, Infrared, Thymidine kinase, Thymidine kinase 1


Serum thymidine kinase type 1 (TK1) and canine C-Reactive Protein (cCRP) might be useful in detecting dogs with cancer. Algorithms combining biomarkers are sometimes more accurate than results of individual tests.

Concepts: C-reactive protein, Thymidine kinase, Thymidine kinase 1


Thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) is involved in DNA synthesis and is considered a reliable and sensitive marker of cell proliferation. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of measurements of serum TK1 activity following tumor ablation.

Concepts: Cancer, Lung cancer, Squamous cell carcinoma, Prognosis, Renal cell carcinoma, Nephrectomy, Thymidine kinase, Thymidine kinase 1


Thymidine kinases have an important role in the synthesis of DNA and exhibit high activity in rapidly proliferating cells. Thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) activity has been shown to be increased in various cancer types and proposed as a prognostic parameter. Aim of the present study was to investigate TK1 in muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma (UC).

Concepts: Gene expression, Adenosine triphosphate, Lung cancer, Types of cancer, Bladder cancer, Thymidine kinase, Transitional cell carcinoma, Thymidine kinase 1


In this report we describe studies with N5-2OH, a carboranyl thymidine analog (CTA), which is a substrate for thymidine kinase 1 (TK1), using the F98 rat glioma model. In vivo BNCT studies have demonstrated that intracerebral (i.c.) osmotic pump infusion of N5-2OH yielded survival data equivalent to those obtained with i.v. administration of boronophenylalanine (BPA). The combination of N5-2OH and BPA resulted in a modest increase in MST of F98 glioma bearing rats compared to a statistically significant increase with the RG2 glioma model, as has been previously reported by us (Barth et al., 2008). This had lead us to synthesize a second generation of CTAs that have improved in vitro enzyme kinetics and in vivo tumor uptake (Agarwal et al., 2015).

Concepts: Cancer, Enzyme, Brain tumor, In vivo, In vitro, Glioblastoma multiforme, Thymidine kinase, Thymidine kinase 1


The primary objective was to estimate serum thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) activity, reflecting total body cell proliferation rate including cancer cell proliferation, in women with loco regional inoperable or metastatic breast cancer participating in a prospective and randomized study. Secondary objectives were to analyze TK1 in relation to progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), therapy response and other tumour characteristics, including CA 15-3, widely used as a standard serum marker for disease progression. TK1 and CA 15-3 were analysed in 198 serum samples collected prospectively from women included in the randomized TEX trial between December 2002 and June 2007. TK1 activity was determined by the ELISA based DiviTum™ assay, and CA 15-3 analyses was generated with the electrochemiluminescence immunoassay Cobas Elecsys CA 15-3 II. High pre-treatment TK1 activity predicted shorter PFS (10 vs. 15 months p = 0.02) and OS (21 vs. 38 months, p < 0.0001), respectively. After adjustment for age, metastatic site and study treatment TK1 showed a trend as predictor of PFS (p = 0.059) and was an independent prognostic factor for OS, (HR 1.81, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.26-2.61, p = 0.001). There was a trend of shortened OS for women with high CA 15-3 (p = 0.054) in univariate analysis, but not after adjustment for the above mentioned covariates. Both TK1 (p = 0.0011) and CA 15-3 (p = 0.0004) predicted response to treatment. There were statistically different distributions of TK1 and CA 15-3 in relation to the site of metastases. TK1 activity measured by DiviTum™ predicted therapy response, PFS and OS in loco regional inoperable or disseminated breast cancer. These results suggest that this factor is a useful serum marker. In the present material, a prognostic value of CA 15-3 could not be proven.

Concepts: Cancer, Breast cancer, Metastasis, Oncology, Lung cancer, Chemotherapy, Thymidine kinase, Thymidine kinase 1