Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Thought experiment


Practical quantum computers require a large network of highly coherent qubits, interconnected in a design robust against errors. Donor spins in silicon provide state-of-the-art coherence and quantum gate fidelities, in a platform adapted from industrial semiconductor processing. Here we present a scalable design for a silicon quantum processor that does not require precise donor placement and leaves ample space for the routing of interconnects and readout devices. We introduce the flip-flop qubit, a combination of the electron-nuclear spin states of a phosphorus donor that can be controlled by microwave electric fields. Two-qubit gates exploit a second-order electric dipole-dipole interaction, allowing selective coupling beyond the nearest-neighbor, at separations of hundreds of nanometers, while microwave resonators can extend the entanglement to macroscopic distances. We predict gate fidelities within fault-tolerance thresholds using realistic noise models. This design provides a realizable blueprint for scalable spin-based quantum computers in silicon.Quantum computers will require a large network of coherent qubits, connected in a noise-resilient way. Tosi et al. present a design for a quantum processor based on electron-nuclear spins in silicon, with electrical control and coupling schemes that simplify qubit fabrication and operation.

Concepts: Electron, Quantum information science, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Quantum computer, Quantum dot, Qubit, Integrated circuit, Thought experiment


Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) is the most widely used treatment option for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Elevated serum YKL-40 level has been shown to predict poor prognosis in HCC patients undergoing resection. This study was designed to validate the prognostic significance of serum YKL-40 in patients with HCC undergoing TACE treatment.

Concepts: Lung cancer, Medical terms, Hepatocellular carcinoma, Hepatology, Radiology, Prognosis, Thought experiment, Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization


The gender imbalance in STEM subjects dominates current debates about women’s underrepresentation in academia. However, women are well represented at the Ph.D. level in some sciences and poorly represented in some humanities (e.g., in 2011, 54% of U.S. Ph.D.’s in molecular biology were women versus only 31% in philosophy). We hypothesize that, across the academic spectrum, women are underrepresented in fields whose practitioners believe that raw, innate talent is the main requirement for success, because women are stereotyped as not possessing such talent. This hypothesis extends to African Americans' underrepresentation as well, as this group is subject to similar stereotypes. Results from a nationwide survey of academics support our hypothesis (termed the field-specific ability beliefs hypothesis) over three competing hypotheses.

Concepts: Scientific method, Greek loanwords, Academia, Theory, Falsifiability, Thought experiment, Humanities


Pseudomature behavior-ranging from minor delinquency to precocious romantic involvement-is widely viewed as a nearly normative feature of adolescence. When such behavior occurs early in adolescence, however, it was hypothesized to reflect a misguided overemphasis upon impressing peers and was considered likely to predict long-term adjustment problems. In a multimethod, multireporter study following a community sample of 184 adolescents from ages 13 to 23, early adolescent pseudomature behavior was linked cross-sectionally to a heightened desire for peer popularity and to short-term success with peers. Longitudinal results, however, supported the study’s central hypothesis: Early adolescent pseudomature behavior predicted long-term difficulties in close relationships, as well as significant problems with alcohol and substance use, and elevated levels of criminal behavior.

Concepts: Scientific method, Prediction, Economics, Hypothesis, Adolescence, Term, Thought experiment, Peer group


The hypothesis that human reasoning obeys the laws of quantum rather than classical probability has been used in recent years to explain a variety of seemingly “irrational” judgment and decision-making findings. This article provides independent evidence for this hypothesis based on an a priori prediction, called the quantum question (QQ) equality, concerning the effect of asking attitude questions successively in different orders. We empirically evaluated the predicted QQ equality using 70 national representative surveys and two laboratory experiments that manipulated question orders. Each national study contained 651-3,006 participants. The results provided strong support for the predicted QQ equality. These findings suggest that quantum probability theory, initially invented to explain noncommutativity of measurements in physics, provides a simple account for a surprising regularity regarding measurement order effects in social and behavioral science.

Concepts: Scientific method, Quantum mechanics, Science, Empiricism, Experiment, Hypothesis, Theory, Thought experiment


Existing clinical prediction models (CPM) for short-term mortality after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) have limited applicability in the UK due to moderate predictive performance and inconsistent recording practices across registries. The aim of this study was to derive a UK-TAVI CPM to predict 30-day mortality risk for benchmarking purposes.

Concepts: Prediction, Futurology, United Kingdom, Thought experiment


Children’s intelligence mind-sets (i.e., their beliefs about whether intelligence is fixed or malleable) robustly influence their motivation and learning. Yet, surprisingly, research has not linked parents' intelligence mind-sets to their children’s. We tested the hypothesis that a different belief of parents-their failure mind-sets-may be more visible to children and therefore more prominent in shaping their beliefs. In Study 1, we found that parents can view failure as debilitating or enhancing, and that these failure mind-sets predict parenting practices and, in turn, children’s intelligence mind-sets. Study 2 probed more deeply into how parents display failure mind-sets. In Study 3a, we found that children can indeed accurately perceive their parents' failure mind-sets but not their parents' intelligence mind-sets. Study 3b showed that children’s perceptions of their parents' failure mind-sets also predicted their own intelligence mind-sets. Finally, Study 4 showed a causal effect of parents' failure mind-sets on their responses to their children’s hypothetical failure. Overall, parents who see failure as debilitating focus on their children’s performance and ability rather than on their children’s learning, and their children, in turn, tend to believe that intelligence is fixed rather than malleable.

Concepts: Scientific method, Prediction, Futurology, Perception, Hypothesis, Learning, Developmental psychology, Thought experiment


Past work has linked mindfulness to improved emotion regulation, interpersonal skills, and basic cognitive abilities, but is unclear about the relation between mindfulness and creativity. Studies examining effects of mindfulness on factors pertinent to creativity suggest a uniform and positive relation, whereas work on specific mindfulness skills suggests that mindfulness skills may differentially predict creativity. To test whether the relation between mindfulness and creativity is positive and uniform (the uniform hypothesis) or differentially depends on particular components of mindfulness (the differential hypothesis), we conducted four studies in which mindfulness skills were measured, extensively trained, or manipulated with a short, incidental meditation session. Results supported a differential relation between mindfulness and creativity: Only the ability to observe and attend to various stimuli consistently and positively predicted creativity. Results regarding other mindfulness skills were less consistent. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

Concepts: Scientific method, Psychology, Prediction, Future, Cognition, Educational psychology, Hypothesis, Thought experiment


The outcomes of adjuvant chemoradiation for locally advanced rectal cancer are nonuniform among patients with matching prognostic factors. We explored the role of molecular markers for predicting the outcome of adjuvant chemoradiation for rectal cancer patients.

Concepts: Cancer, Oncology, Lung cancer, Thought experiment


The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between postconcussion symptom complaint (PCS) severity and positive coping factors (knowledge, self-efficacy, and attributions) in a sample of individuals who have sustained a mild TBI, above and beyond the demographic and psychiatric predictors that have been most commonly examined. Ninety-one people with a history of reported mild TBI were surveyed. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that demographic variables and psychiatric symptom severity predicted PCS severity. Consistent with our hypotheses, knowledge, self-efficacy, and attributions, when taken together, made an independent and significant contribution to prediction of PCS severity (21% of additional variance). The most potent factor was attribution, or the extent to which one attributes symptoms to mild TBI versus other causes. Those who attribute their symptoms to TBI are more likely to report greater symptom severity overall. Taken together, knowledge, self-efficacy, and attributions contribute independently to PCS severity. Additional research is needed to determine if these factors are amenable to intervention.

Concepts: Scientific method, Regression analysis, Traumatic brain injury, Prediction, Greek loanwords, Fatigue, Post-concussion syndrome, Thought experiment