Concept: Thomson Reuters
A number of new metrics based on social media platforms-grouped under the term “altmetrics”-have recently been introduced as potential indicators of research impact. Despite their current popularity, there is a lack of information regarding the determinants of these metrics. Using publication and citation data from 1.3 million papers published in 2012 and covered in Thomson Reuters' Web of Science as well as social media counts from Altmetric.com, this paper analyses the main patterns of five social media metrics as a function of document characteristics (i.e., discipline, document type, title length, number of pages and references) and collaborative practices and compares them to patterns known for citations. Results show that the presence of papers on social media is low, with 21.5% of papers receiving at least one tweet, 4.7% being shared on Facebook, 1.9% mentioned on blogs, 0.8% found on Google+ and 0.7% discussed in mainstream media. By contrast, 66.8% of papers have received at least one citation. Our findings show that both citations and social media metrics increase with the extent of collaboration and the length of the references list. On the other hand, while editorials and news items are seldom cited, it is these types of document that are the most popular on Twitter. Similarly, while longer papers typically attract more citations, an opposite trend is seen on social media platforms. Finally, contrary to what is observed for citations, it is papers in the Social Sciences and humanities that are the most often found on social media platforms. On the whole, these findings suggest that factors driving social media and citations are different. Therefore, social media metrics cannot actually be seen as alternatives to citations; at most, they may function as complements to other type of indicators.
“Publish or perish” is the time-honored “principle” for academicians who race to accumulate lines under the “publications” section of a curriculum vitae. The original intent of publication-to inform others of findings and further scientific knowledge-has been corrupted by factors including (1) exponential growth of journals and the journal industry, fueled in part by intrusion of the Internet into all aspects of academic life; and (2) adoption of journal metrics (rather than written content) as the measure of scientific quality. The proprietary Thomson Reuters Impact Factor is the most pernicious metric, having caused editors and publishers to change editorial practices to boost the number. At the same time, gullible administrators and government agencies have been persuaded that metrics for the journal in which materials are published can be used as a measure of the worth of individual investigators (and institutions) and their research efforts: simple numbers can be substituted for the burdensome effort required to read and assess research quality. Thus, granting of research funds, awarding of academic rank and tenure, and determination of salaries (including bonus payments) have become tied to manipulable journal metrics rather than the significance or quality of reported research. Therefore, it is no wonder that the integrity of science is more often being questioned. How should a young investigator approach the “publish or perish” dilemma? Performing sound research and preparing optimal materials for publication must remain the overriding goals: properly articulate the question addressed by the study; thoroughly document all methods and case information; carefully describe results including any conflicting or negative findings; discuss the importance of the findings along with how the results address the initial question and whether findings refute or confirm previous studies; prepare properly cited bibliographic references; list all author contributions, potential conflicts of interest, financial support, and required ethical approvals; and provide a catchy title and an abstract containing sufficient information that other investigators perusing scientific indices will be enticed to read the published article. Submit the completed manuscript to the most appropriate journal based on that journal’s previously published content and relevance to the field of study regardless of journal metrics. On publication, notify investigators in the same field to ask for their comments on the work. Thus, an individual will become known for the quality of his or her work product and the worshiping of publication metrics will be unnecessary.
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Laryngotracheal stenosis usually occurs as a result of injury from endotracheal intubation or tracheostomy placement. With an estimated incidence of 1% to 22% after these procedures, chronic sequelae ranging from discomfort to devastating effects on quality of life, and even death, make this complication a potential litigation target. We examined federal and state court records for malpractice regarding laryngotracheal stenosis and examined characteristics influencing determination of liability. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective analysis. METHODS: The Westlaw Next legal database (Thomson Reuters, New York, NY) was searched for pertinent federal and state malpractice cases and examined for several factors including alleged cause of malpractice, complications, case outcome, and specialty of the defendants. RESULTS: Twenty-three pertinent cases over 35 years were identified. Fourteen (60.9%) cases were decided in the physician’s favor, with six plaintiff verdicts awarding an average of $922,129 for malpractice, and three out-of-court settlements averaging $441,600. Hospitals were the most frequently named defendants, and anesthesiologists were most commonly named physician defendants. Endotracheal intubations and tracheostomy history were frequent factors in these cases. Laryngeal lesions were more likely to result in payments, trending higher than those stemming from tracheal lesions. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple cases mentioned previous intubation as a potential risk factor that may have led to laryngotracheal stenosis. Location of stenosis and requirement of reparative procedures may also influence outcomes. Cases not decided in the defendant’s favor frequently included other extenuating circumstances, including severity of other injuries. Although the majority of cases were defendant decisions, the verdicts decided for the plaintiffs had considerable damages awarded. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: NA Laryngoscope, 2013.
In this paper, we apply an original scientometric analyses to a corpus comprising synthetic biology (SynBio) publications in Thomson Reuters Web of Science to characterize the emergence of this new scientific field. Three results were drawn from this empirical investigation. First, despite the exponential growth of publications, the study of population level statistics (newcomers proportion, collaboration network structure) shows that SynBio has entered a stabilization process since 2010. Second, the mapping of textual and citational networks shows that SynBio is characterized by high heterogeneity and four different approaches: the central approach, where biobrick engineering is the most widespread; genome engineering; protocell creation; and metabolic engineering. We suggest that synthetic biology acts as an umbrella term allowing for the mobilization of resources, and also serves to relate scientific content and promises of applications. Third, we observed a strong intertwinement between epistemic and socio-economic dynamics. Measuring scientific production and impact and using structural analysis data, we identified a core set of mostly American scientists. Biographical analysis shows that these central and influential scientists act as “boundary spanners,” meaning that their importance to the field lies not only in their academic contributions, but also in their capacity to interact with other social spaces that are outside the academic sphere.
Global maps of science can be used as a reference system to chart career trajectories, the location of emerging research frontiers, or the expertise profiles of institutes or nations. This paper details data preparation, analysis, and layout performed when designing and subsequently updating the UCSD map of science and classification system. The original classification and map use 7.2 million papers and their references from Elsevier’s Scopus (about 15,000 source titles, 2001-2005) and Thomson Reuters' Web of Science (WoS) Science, Social Science, Arts & Humanities Citation Indexes (about 9,000 source titles, 2001-2004)-about 16,000 unique source titles. The updated map and classification adds six years (2005-2010) of WoS data and three years (2006-2008) from Scopus to the existing category structure-increasing the number of source titles to about 25,000. To our knowledge, this is the first time that a widely used map of science was updated. A comparison of the original 5-year and the new 10-year maps and classification system show (i) an increase in the total number of journals that can be mapped by 9,409 journals (social sciences had a 80% increase, humanities a 119% increase, medical (32%) and natural science (74%)), (ii) a simplification of the map by assigning all but five highly interdisciplinary journals to exactly one discipline, (iii) a more even distribution of journals over the 554 subdisciplines and 13 disciplines when calculating the coefficient of variation, and (iv) a better reflection of journal clusters when compared with paper-level citation data. When evaluating the map with a listing of desirable features for maps of science, the updated map is shown to have higher mapping accuracy, easier understandability as fewer journals are multiply classified, and higher usability for the generation of data overlays, among others.
The interest in children’s eating behaviours and how to change them has been growing in recent years. This review examines the following questions: What strategies have been used to change children’s eating behaviours? Have their effects been experimentally demonstrated? And, are the effects transient or enduring? Medline and Cab abstract (Ovid) and Web of Science (Thomson Reuters) were used to identify the experimental studies. A total of 120 experimental studies were identified and they are presented grouped within these 11 topics; parental control, reward, social facilitation, cooking programs, school gardens, sensory education, availability and accessibility, choice architecture and nudging, branding and food packaging, preparation and serving style, and offering a choice. In conclusion, controlling strategies for changing children’s eating behaviour in a positive direction appear to be counterproductive. Hands-on approaches such as gardening and cooking programs may encourage greater vegetable consumption and may have a larger effect compared to nutrition education. Providing children with free, accessible fruits and vegetables have been experimentally shown to positively affect long-term eating behaviour. The authors recommend future research to examine how taste and palatability can positively affect children’s attitudes and eating behaviour.
Anthropogenic climate change is inherently a biometeorological issue. As such, it would be reasonably expected that the International Society of Biometeorology (ISB) and its journal, International Journal of Biometeorology (IJB), would have had climate change feature prominently in their activities, articles etc., and to therefore have made a substantial and valuable contribution to the science of the issue. This article presents an analysis of climate change science in ISB and IJB. The analysis focusses on climate-change-related publications by ISB Presidents found through searches of Thomson Reuters Web of Science; contributions to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s (IPCC’s) Working Group II (WGII) by ISB Presidents; and climate change-related publications in IJB found through searches of Thomson Reuters Web of Science. The results demonstrate that the ISB, as represented by its recent, current, and future Presidents, is actively engaged in climate change research and the production of scholarly climate change publications. For example, ISB Presidents have contributed as authors to all four IPCC WGII Assessment Reports, with some Presidents having contributed to more than one Assessment Report or several chapters of the one report. Similarly, it is evident that the IJB is increasingly attracting and publishing climate-change-related articles, with such articles generally having greater impact (as indicated by citations) than other IJB articles. Opportunities for the ISB to provide an internal framework for, and showcase, its climate change work are described. Such opportunities, if enacted, would complement the recent creation of two IJB climate change Field Editor positions.
IntroductionThe safety of arterial hyperoxia is under increasing scrutiny. We performed a systematic review of the literature to determine whether any association exists between arterial hyperoxia and mortality in critically ill patient subsets.MethodsMedline, Thomson Reuters Web of Science and Scopus databases were searched from inception to June 2014. Observational or interventional studies evaluating the relationship between hyperoxia (defined as a supranormal arterial O2 tension) and mortality in adult intensive care unit (ICU) patients were included. Studies primarily involving patients with exacerbations of chronic pulmonary disease, acute lung injury and perioperative administration were excluded. Adjusted odds ratio (OR) of patients exposed versus those non-exposed to hyperoxia were extracted, if available. Alternatively, unadjusted outcome data were recorded. Data on patients, study characteristics and the criteria used for defining hyperoxia exposure were also extracted. Random-effects models were used for quantitative synthesis of the data, with a primary outcome of hospital mortality.ResultsIn total 17 studies (16 observational, 1 prospective before-after) were identified in different patient categories: mechanically ventilated ICU (number of studies (k)¿=¿4, number of participants (n)¿=¿189,143), post-cardiac arrest (k¿=¿6, n¿=¿19,144), stroke (k¿=¿2, n¿=¿5,537), and traumatic brain injury (k¿=¿5, n¿=¿7,488). Different criteria were used to define hyperoxia in terms of PaO2 value (first, highest, worst, mean), time of assessment and pre-determined cut-offs. Data from studies on ICU patients were not pooled because of extreme heterogeneity (Inconsistency (I2) 96.73%). Hyperoxia was associated with increased mortality in post-cardiac arrest patients (OR¿=¿1.42 (1.04 to 1.92) I2 67.73%) stroke (OR¿=¿1.23 (1.06 to 1.43) I2 0%) and traumatic brain injury (OR¿=¿1.41 (1.03 to 1.94) I2 64.54%). However, these results are limited by significant heterogeneity between studies.ConclusionsHyperoxia may be associated with increased mortality in patients with stroke, traumatic brain injury and those resuscitated from cardiac arrest. However, these results are limited by the high heterogeneity of the included studies.
In 2009, Scott S. Reuben was convicted of fabricating data, which lead to 25 of his publications being retracted. Although it is clear that the perpetuation of retracted articles negatively effects the appraisal of evidence, the extent to which retracted literature is cited had not previously been investigated. In this study, to better understand the perpetuation of discredited research, we examine the number of citations of Reuben’s articles within 5 years of their retraction. Citations of Reuben’s retracted articles were assessed using the Web of Science Core Collection (Thomson Reuters, NY). All citing articles were screened to discriminate between articles in which Reuben’s work was quoted as retracted, and articles in which his data was wrongly cited without any note of the retraction status. Twenty of Reuben’s publications had been cited 274 times between 2009 and 1024. In 2014, 45 % of the retracted articles had been cited at least once. In only 25.8 % of citing articles was it clearly stated that Reuben’s work had been retracted. Annual citations decreased from 108 in 2009 to 18 in 2014; however, the percentage of publications correctly indicating the retraction status also declined. The percentage of citations in top-25 %-journals, as well as the percentage of citations in journals from Reuben’s research area, declined sharply after 2009. Our data show that even 5 years after their retraction, nearly half of Reuben’s articles are still being quoted and the retraction status is correctly mentioned in only one quarter of the citations.
BACKGROUND: Prior to 2010, Medicare payments for consultations (commonly billed by specialists) were substantially higher than for office visits of similar complexity (commonly billed by primary care physicians). In January 2010, Medicare eliminated consultation payments from the Part B Physician Fee Schedule and increased fees for office visits. This change was intended to be budget neutral and to decrease payments to specialists while increasing payments to primary care physicians. We assessed the impact of this policy on spending, volume, and complexity for outpatient office encounters in 2010. METHODS: We examined 2007-2010 outpatient claims for 2,247,810 Medicare beneficiaries with Medicare Supplemental (Medigap) coverage through large employers in the Thomson Reuters MarketScan Database. We used segmented regression analysis to study changes in spending, volume, and complexity of office encounters adjusted for age, sex, health status, secular trends, seasonality, and hospital referral region. RESULTS: “New” office visits largely replaced consultations in 2010. An average of $10.20 (6.5 percent) more was spent per beneficiary per quarter on physician encounters after the policy. The total volume of physician encounters did not change significantly. The increase in spending was largely explained by higher office visit fees from the policy and a shift toward higher complexity visits to both specialists and primary care physicians. CONCLUSIONS: The elimination of consultations led to a net increase in spending on visits to both primary care physicians and specialists. Higher prices, partially due to the subjectivity of codes in the physician fee schedule, explained the spending increase, rather than higher volumes.