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Concept: Thermography


Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a multifactorial, three-dimensional deformity of the spine and trunk. School scoliosis screening (SSS) is recommended by researchers as a means of early detection of AIS to prevent its progression in school-aged children. The traditional screening technique for AIS is the forward bending test because it is simple, non-invasive and inexpensive. Other tests, such as the use of Moiré topography, have reduced the high false referral rates. The use of infrared (IR) thermography for screening purposes based on the findings of previous studies on the asymmetrical paraspinal muscle activity of scoliotic patients compared with non-scoliotic subjects was explored in this study. IR thermography is performed with an IR camera to determine the temperature differences in paraspinal muscle activity. A statistical analysis showed that scoliotic subjects demonstrate a statistically significant difference between the left and right sides of the regions of interest. This difference could be due to the higher IR emission of the convex side of the observed area, thereby creating a higher temperature distribution. The findings of this study suggest the feasibility of incorporating IR thermography as part of SSS. However, future studies could also consider a larger sample of both non-scoliotic and scoliotic subjects to further validate the findings.

Concepts: Statistics, Statistical significance, Vertebral column, Temperature, Black body, Infrared, Thermography, Thermal radiation


Temperature is one of the most important factors affecting the life of insects [1]. For instance, high temperatures can have deleterious effects on insects' physiology. Therefore, many of them have developed various strategies to avoid the risk of thermal stress [2]. They can seek a fresher environment or adjust their water loss, but hematophagous insects, such as mosquitoes, must confront the issue of thermal stress at each feeding event on a warm-blooded host [3]. To better understand to what extent mosquitoes are exposed to thermal stress while feeding, we conducted a real-time infrared thermographic analysis of mosquitoes' body temperature during feeding on both warm blood and sugar solution. First, our results highlighted differences in temperature between the body parts of the mosquito (i.e., heterothermy) during blood intake, but not during sugar meals. We also found that anopheline mosquitoes can decrease their body temperature during blood feeding thanks to evaporative cooling of fluid droplets, which are excreted and maintained at the end of the abdomen. This mechanism protects the insect itself, probably as well as the sheltered microorganisms, both symbionts and parasites, from thermal stress. These findings constitute the first evidence of thermoregulation among hematophagous insects and explain the paradox of fresh blood excretion during feeding.

Concepts: Blood, Insect, Mosquito, Temperature, Liquid, Black body, Thermography, Hematophagy


To map skin temperature kinetics, and by extension skin blood flow throughout normal or abnormal repair of full-thickness cutaneous wounds created on the horse body and limb, using infrared thermography.

Concepts: Scar, Wound healing, Healing, Temperature, Horse, Black body, Thermography, Thermal radiation


Infection with the soil-borne pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC), which causes Fusarium wilt of cucumber plants, might result in changes in plant transpiration and water status within leaves. To monitor leaf response in cucumber infected with FOC, digital infrared thermography (DIT) was employed to detect changes in leaf temperature. During the early stages of FOC infection, stomata closure was induced by ABA in leaves, resulting in a decreased transpiration rate and increased leaf temperature. Subsequently, cell death occurred, accompanied by water loss, resulting in a little decrease in leaf temperature. A negative correlation between transpiration rate and leaf temperature was existed. But leaf temperature exhibited a special pattern with different disease severity on light-dark cycle. Lightly wilted leaves had a higher temperature in light and a lower temperature in dark than did in healthy leaves. We identified that the water loss from wilted leaves was regulated not by stomata but rather by cells damage caused by pathogen infection. Finally, water balance in infected plants became disordered and dead tissue was dehydrated, so leaf temperature increased again. These data suggest that membrane injury caused by FOC infection induces uncontrolled water loss from damaged cells and an imbalance in leaf water status, and ultimately accelerate plant wilting. Combining detection of the temperature response of leaves to light-dark conditions, DIT not only permits noninvasive detection and indirect visualization of the development of the soil-borne disease Fusarium wilt, but also demonstrates certain internal metabolic processes correlative with water status.

Concepts: Photosynthesis, Bacteria, Fusarium oxysporum, Plant physiology, Leaf, Infrared, Transpiration, Thermography


E-liquids generally contain four main components: nicotine, flavours, water and carrier liquids. The carrier liquid dissolves flavours and nicotine and vaporises at a certain temperature on the atomizer of the e-cigarette. Propylene glycol and glycerol, the principal carriers used in e-liquids, undergo decomposition in contact with the atomizer heating-coil forming volatile carbonyls. Some of these, such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein, are of concern due to their adverse impact on human health when inhaled at sufficient concentrations. The aim of this study was to correlate the yield of volatile carbonyls emitted by e-cigarettes with the temperature of the heating coil. For this purpose, a popular commercial e-liquid was machine-vaped on a third generation e-cigarette which allowed the variation of the output wattage (5-25W) and therefore the heat generated on the atomizer heating-coil. The temperature of the heating-coil was determined by infrared thermography and the vapour generated at each temperature underwent subjective sensorial quality evaluation by an experienced vaper. A steep increase in the generated carbonyls was observed when applying a battery-output of at least 15W corresponding to 200-250°C on the heating coil. However, when considering concentrations in each inhaled puff, the short-term indoor air guideline value for formaldehyde was already exceeded at the lowest wattage of 5W, which is the wattage applied in most 2nd generation e-cigarettes. Concentrations of acetaldehyde in each puff were several times below the short-term irritation threshold value for humans. Acrolein was only detected from 20W upwards. The negative sensorial quality evaluation by the volunteering vaper of the vapour generated at 20W demonstrated the unlikelihood that such a wattage would be realistically set by a vaper. This study highlights the importance to develop standardised testing methods for the assessment of carbonyl-emissions and emissions of other potentially harmful compounds from e-cigarettes. The wide variety and variability of products available on the market make the development of such methods and the associated standardised testing conditions particularly demanding.

Concepts: Evaluation, Tobacco, Nicotine, Electronic cigarette, Diol, Propylene glycol, Glycerol, Thermography


BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Infrared thermography (IRT) is a useful tool for assessing skin temperature abnormalities in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). Although determining regions of interest (ROIs) is an essential process for interpreting thermographic images, there are no validated and standardized guidelines to determine ROIs. Therefore, ROIs may be determined differently by each observer even for the same IRT images, which can result in an important issue for IRT reliability. The purpose of this study was to investigate the interexaminer reliability of IRT in patients with CRPS. METHODS: Infrared thermographic images of 28 patients diagnosed with CRPS were reviewed by three independent examiners. The shapes, sizes, and the detailed locations of the ROIs were determined by the investigator’s own opinion based on patient history and symptoms. After maximal skin temperature of the ROI was obtained for each patient, the degree of agreement among the three examiners limbs was assessed. RESULTS: The intraclass correlation coefficient among the three independent raters was 0.865 (95% confidence interval, 0.748-0.933), indicating a high degree of reliability (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The reliability of IRT for assessing skin temperature abnormalities in CRPS was high when the ROIs were determined based on patient history and symptoms.

Concepts: Temperature, Covariance and correlation, Black body, Infrared, Thermography, Thermal radiation, Infrared thermometer, Thermographic camera


At midday, surface temperatures in the desert often exceed 60°C. To be active at this time, animals need extraordinary behavioural or physiological adaptations. Desert ants, for instance, spend up to 75% of their foraging time cooling down on elevated thermal refuges such as grass stalks [1]. Ball-rolling dung beetles work under similar thermal conditions in South African savannahs. After landing at a fresh dung pile, a beetle quickly forms a dung ball and rolls it away in a straight line, head down, walking backwards [2]. Earlier studies have shown that some dung beetles maintain an elevated body temperature to gain a competitive advantage [3-5], and that heat shunting may prevent overheating during flight [6,7]. However, we know little about the behavioural strategies beetles might employ to mitigate heat stress while rolling their dung balls. Using infrared thermography and behavioural experiments, we show here that dung beetles use their dung ball as a mobile thermal refuge onto which they climb to cool down while rolling across hot soil. We further demonstrate that the moist ball functions not only as a portable platform, but also as a heat sink, which effectively cools the beetle as it rolls or climbs onto it.

Concepts: Insect, Temperature, Heat, Beetle, Black body, Infrared, Thermography, Dung beetle


Ti-51Ni (at%) alloys including coherent precipitates of Ti3Ni4 exhibits thermally-induced B2-R transformation. If the Ti3Ni4 is formed under tensile stress, it orientates preferentially so that its habit plane becomes perpendicular to the tensile axis. In such specimens, stress-induced reverse R-B2 transformation is reported to occur. In the present study, the stress-induced reverse R-B2 transformation behavior was studied by infrared camera and in situ X-ray analysis. The infrared camera observation revealed that the temperature of the specimen decreases homogeneously by the application of tensile stress within the resolution of the camera. The in situ X-ray analysis revealed that stress-induced reverse R-B2 transformation and rearrangement of variants of the R-phase occurs simultaneously in the specimen.

Concepts: Present, Zinc, Solid, Tensile strength, Perpendicular, Alloy, Specimen, Thermography


To evaluate the surface temperature rise using an infrared thermal imaging camera on roots with and without simulated internal resorption cavities; during canal filling with injectable (Obtura II), carrier-based (Soft-Core) gutta-percha and continuous wave of condensation (System B) techniques.

Concepts: Temperature, Heat transfer, Black body, Infrared, Thermography, Thermal radiation, Infrared thermometer, Thermographic camera


This study aimed to search for relations between body fat percentage and skin temperature and to describe possible effects on skin temperature as a result of fat percentage in each anatomical site. Women (26.11±4.41 years old) (n =123) were tested for: body circumferences; skin temperatures (thermal camera); fat percentage and lean mass from trunk, upper and lower limbs; and body fat percentage (Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry). Values of minimum (TMi), maximum (TMa), and mean temperatures (TMe) were acquired in 30 regions of interest. Pearson’s correlation was estimated for body circumferences and skin temperature variables with body fat percentage. Participants were divided into groups of high and low fat percentage of each body segment, of which TMe values were compared with Student’s t-test. Linear regression models for predicting body fat percentage were tested. Body fat percentage was positively correlated with body circumferences and palm temperatures, while it was negatively correlated with most temperatures, such as TMa and TMe of posterior thighs (r =-0.495 and -0.432), TMe of posterior lower limbs (r =-0.488), TMa of anterior thighs (r =-0.406) and TMi and TMe of posterior arms (r =-0.447 and -0.430). Higher fat percentages in the specific anatomical sites tended to decrease TMe, especially in posterior thighs, shanks and arms. Skin temperatures and body circumferences predicted body fat percentage with 58.3% accuracy (R =0.764 and R(2) =0.583). This study clarifies that skin temperature distribution is influenced by the fat percentage of each body segment.

Concepts: Regression analysis, Statistics, Adipose tissue, Temperature, Body fat percentage, Black body, Thermography, Thermal radiation