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Concept: The Work


Despite intensive studies on cerebral activity during trances involving tranquil arousal states, there are little data on physiological basis of naturally induced possession trances involving hyperarousal active states because of the difficulty of gathering data from participants within a natural cultural context in the field. We investigated the characteristics of electroencephalograms (EEGs) that were specific for naturally induced possession trances involving hyperarousal states in actual rituals. We measured the EEG signals of 12 healthy participants, seven with trance and five without trance, before, during, and after a dedicatory ritual drama in Bali, Indonesia, using a custom-modified field telemetry system. During trance, θ (4-7.5 Hz), α-1 (8-9.5 Hz), α-2 (10-12.5 Hz), and β (13-30 Hz) signals were significantly increased compared with those during the control phases. Such findings were not observed in participants without trance when they performed similar movements in the rituals. The α-1 and α-2 signals tended to remain elevated for several minutes postritual compared with those recorded during the preritual resting state. These results suggest that spontaneous EEG patterns during possession trances may be related, at least in part, to the activation of the reward-generating neuronal system situated in deep-lying brain structures and deactivation of the cerebral cortex.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.

Concepts: Telemetry, Trance, The Work, Lawrence Lessig, Ritual, Electroencephalography, Creative Commons, Brain


Pancreatic cancer (PC) is estimated to become the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States by 2020. Early detection is the key to improving survival in PC. Addressing this urgent need, the Kenner Family Research Fund conducted the inaugural Early Detection of Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer Summit Conference in 2014 in conjunction with the 45th Anniversary Meeting of the American Pancreatic Association and Japan Pancreas Society. This seminal convening of international representatives from science, practice, and clinical research was designed to facilitate challenging interdisciplinary conversations to generate innovative ideas leading to the creation of a defined collaborative strategic pathway for the future of the field. An in-depth summary of current efforts in the field, analysis of gaps in specific areas of expertise, and challenges that exist in early detection is presented within distinct areas of inquiry: Case for Early Detection: Definitions, Detection, Survival, and Challenges; Biomarkers for Early Detection; Imaging; and Collaborative Studies. In addition, an overview of efforts in familial PC is presented in an addendum to this article. It is clear from the summit deliberations that only strategically designed collaboration among investigators, institutions, and funders will lead to significant progress in early detection of sporadic PC.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially.

Concepts: Collaboration, The Summit League, The Work, Lawrence Lessig, United States, Pancreas, Creative Commons, Pancreatic cancer


Quarantine is an important but often misused tool of public health. An effective quarantine requires a process that inspires trust in government, only punishes noncompliance, and promotes a culture of social responsibility. Accomplishing successful quarantine requires incentives and enabling factors, payments, job security, and a tiered enforcement plan. In this article, we examine the variation in state-level quarantine laws and assess the effectiveness of these laws and regulations. We find that most states allow for an individual to have a hearing (63%) and to have a voice in burial and cremation procedures (71%), yet are weak on all other individual rights measures. Only 20% of states have provisions to protect employment when an individual is under quarantine, and less than half have plans for safe and humane quarantines. Decision makers at the state and local levels must make a concerted effort to revise and update quarantine laws and regulations. Ideally, these laws and regulations should be harmonized so as to avoid confusion and disruption between states, and public health officials should work with populations to identify and address the factors that will support successful quarantines if they are ever required.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.

Concepts: The Work, Lawrence Lessig, Individual rights, Civil and political rights, Rights, Creative Commons, State


Surprisingly little research investigates employee breaks at work, and even less research provides prescriptive suggestions for better workday breaks in terms of when, where, and how break activities are most beneficial. Based on the effort-recovery model and using experience sampling methodology, we examined the characteristics of employee workday breaks with 95 employees across 5 workdays. In addition, we examined resources as a mediator between break characteristics and well-being. Multilevel analysis results indicated that activities that were preferred and earlier in the work shift related to more resource recovery following the break. We also found that resources mediated the influence of preferred break activities and time of break on health symptoms and that resource recovery benefited person-level outcomes of emotional exhaustion, job satisfaction, and organizational citizenship behavior. Finally, break length interacted with the number of breaks per day such that longer breaks and frequent short breaks were associated with more resources than infrequent short breaks. (PsycINFO Database Record

Concepts: Sampling, Resources, Shift work, Organizational citizenship behavior, The Work, Resource, Break, Employment


The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of recovery type (passive vs. active) during prolonged intermittent exercises on the blood lactate concentration (MLSS) and work rate (MLSS(wint)) at maximal lactate steady state. Nineteen male trained cyclists were divided into 2 groups for the determination of MLSS(wint) using passive (maximal oxygen uptake = 58.1 ± 3.5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1); N = 9) or active recovery (maximal oxygen uptake = 60.3 ± 9.0 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1); N = 10). They performed the following tests, on different days, on a cycle ergometer: (i) incremental test until exhaustion to determine maximal oxygen uptake; (ii) 2 to 3 continuous submaximal constant work rate tests (CWRT) for the determination of the work rate at continuous maximal lactate steady state (MLSS(wcont)); and (iii) 2 to 3 intermittent submaximal CWRT (7 × 4 min and 1 × 2 min, with 2-min recovery) with either passive or active recovery for the determination of MLSS(wint). MLSS(wint) was significantly higher when compared with MLSS(wcont) for both passive recovery (294.7 ± 32.2 vs. 258.7 ± 24.5 W, respectively) and active recovery groups (300.5 ± 23.9 vs. 273.2 ± 21.5 W, respectively). The percentage increments in MLSS(wint) were similar between conditions (passive = 13% vs. active = 10%). MLSS (mmol·L(-1)) was not significantly different between MLSS(wcont) and MLSS(wint) for either passive recovery (4.50 ± 2.10 vs. 5.61 ± 1.78, respectively) and active recovery (4.06 ± 1.49 vs. 4.91 ± 1.91, respectively) conditions. We can conclude that using a work/rest ratio of 2:1, MLSS(wint) was ∼10%-13% higher than MLSS(wcont), irrespective of the recovery type performed during prolonged intermittent exercises.

Concepts: VO2 max, The Work, Steady state, Thermodynamics


The working environment, the nature of the work, and the characteristics of truck drivers as a social group typically pose great challenges for the truck drivers' health and health promotion activities aiming to improve it.

Concepts: Truck drivers, Health promotion, Trucks, The Work, Trucking industry in the United States, Semi-trailer truck, Truck driver, Truck


We adapt the Work Endurance Recovery (WER) method based on Randori Maximal Time to Exhaustion (RMTE) for combat situations in judo.

Concepts: The Work


Taking into account possible irritation of the skin upon contact with naproxen (NPX) crystals and lower bioavailability after administration of the suspended or ionized drug, the aim of the work was to design and characterize novel and easy-to-formulate gels with the entirely dissolved drug in the acidic form. The formulations contained ethanol, SynperonicTMPE/L 62 and Arlasolve® DMI or Transcutol®. Carbopol®940 was used as the thickener. The properties of organogels were compared with six market products. The rheological measurements included steady flow experiments and oscillatory analysis. The texture profile analysis was conducted to calculate the mechanistic parameters. The in vitro permeation studies were performed on SOTAX CE 7 smart apparatus with the application of Strat-M artificial membranes. The obtained organogels fulfilled the requirements for topical products in terms of consistency, uniformity, stability, drug dissolution and permeation. The permeation studies revealed distinct differences among the commercial hydrogels according to permeation coefficients (kP), drug flux (Jss) and average cumulative amount of NPX per area after 12 h (Q12h). The presented work clearly shows that the organogels can be proposed as an alternative for commercial products where NPX occurs in the form of crystals.

Concepts: Skin, In vitro fertilisation, In vitro, The Work, Physical chemistry, Gel


Telecommuting has become an increasingly popular work mode that has generated significant interest from scholars and practitioners alike. With recent advances in technology that enable mobile connections at ever-affordable rates, working away from the office as a telecommuter has become increasingly available to many workers around the world. Since the term telecommuting was first coined in the 1970s, scholars and practitioners have debated the merits of working away from the office, as it represents a fundamental shift in how organizations have historically done business. Complicating efforts to truly understand the implications of telecommuting have been the widely varying definitions and conceptualizations of telecommuting and the diverse fields in which research has taken place.Our objective in this article is to review existing research on telecommuting in an effort to better understand what we as a scientific community know about telecommuting and its implications. In so doing, we aim to bring to the surface some of the intricacies associated with telecommuting research so that we may shed insights into the debate regarding telecommuting’s benefits and drawbacks. We attempt to sift through the divergent and at times conflicting literature to develop an overall sense of the status of our scientific findings, in an effort to identify not only what we know and what we think we know about telecommuting, but also what we must yet learn to fully understand this increasingly important work mode.After a brief review of the history of telecommuting and its prevalence, we begin by discussing the definitional challenges inherent within existing literature and offer a comprehensive definition of telecommuting rooted in existing research. Our review starts by highlighting the need to interpret existing findings with an understanding of how the extent of telecommuting practiced by participants in a study is likely to alter conclusions that may be drawn. We then review telecommuting’s implications for employees' work-family issues, attitudes, and work outcomes, including job satisfaction, organizational commitment and identification, stress, performance, wages, withdrawal behaviors, and firm-level metrics. Our article continues by discussing research findings concerning salient contextual issues that might influence or alter the impact of telecommuting, including the nature of the work performed while telecommuting, interpersonal processes such as knowledge sharing and innovation, and additional considerations that include motives for telecommuting such as family responsibilities. We also cover organizational culture and support that may shape the telecommuting experience, after which we discuss the community and societal effects of telecommuting, including its effects on traffic and emissions, business continuity, and work opportunities, as well as the potential impact on societal ties. Selected examples of telecommuting legislation and policies are also provided in an effort to inform readers regarding the status of the national debate and its legislative implications. Our synthesis concludes by offering recommendations for telecommuting research and practice that aim to improve the quality of data on telecommuting as well as identify areas of research in need of development.

Concepts: Telecommuter, Definition, The Work, Science, Energy, Telecommuting, Scientific method, Debate


given the increase in worldwide obesity among children and adolescents, the long-term consequences of childhood obesity on the risk of adverse health outcomes in later life has garnered increased attention. Much of the work on earlier life weight status and later life health has focused on cardiovascular-related outcomes in mid- to late-adulthood; however, little is known about the later life mental health consequences of adolescent body weight.

Concepts: Child, The Adolescents, The Work, Body shape, Adolescence, Nutrition, Obesity, Childhood