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Concept: The Various

29

High-intensity exercise is associated with mechanical and/or metabolic stresses that lead to reduced performance capacity of skeletal muscle, soreness and inflammation. Cold-water immersion and other forms of cryotherapy are commonly used following a high-intensity bout of exercise to speed recovery. Cryotherapy in its various forms has been used in this capacity for a number of years; however, the mechanisms underlying its recovery effects post-exercise remain elusive. The fundamental change induced by cold therapy is a reduction in tissue temperature, which subsequently exerts local effects on blood flow, cell swelling and metabolism and neural conductance velocity. Systemically, cold therapy causes core temperature reduction and cardiovascular and endocrine changes. A major hindrance to defining guidelines for best practice for the use of the various forms of cryotherapy is an incongruity between mechanistic studies investigating these physiological changes induced by cold and applied studies investigating the functional effects of cold for recovery from high-intensity exercise. When possible, studies investigating the functional recovery effects of cold therapy for recovery from exercise should concomitantly measure intramuscular temperature and relevant temperature-dependent physiological changes induced by this type of recovery strategy. This review will discuss the acute physiological changes induced by various cryotherapy modalities that may affect recovery in the hours to days (<5 days) that follow high-intensity exercise.

Concepts: Metabolism, Blood, Heart, Muscle, Temperature, Affect, Ibn al-Nafis, The Various

26

In this brief review, we summarize the recent research activities involved in the development of amperometric-type immunosensors based on screen-printed electrodes (SPEs). We focus on the underlying principle involved in these types of sensors, their fabrication and electrode surface modification. We also discuss the various factors involved in the designing of such immunosensors and how they affect their performances. Finally we provide an insight into the drawbacks associated with these SPEs.

Concepts: Electrode, The Various, Electrodes

24

The study of singlet oxygen in biological systems is challenging in many ways. Singlet oxygen is a relatively unstable ephemeral molecule, and its properties make it highly reactive with many biomolecules, making it difficult to quantify accurately. Several methods have been developed to study this elusive molecule, but most studies thus far have focussed on those conditions that produce relatively large amounts of singlet oxygen. However, the need for more sensitive methods is required as one begins to explore the levels of singlet oxygen required in signalling and regulatory processes. Here we discuss the various methods used in the study of singlet oxygen, and outline their uses and limitations.

Concepts: Oxygen, Molecule, Regulation, Cultural studies, Singlet oxygen, Triplet oxygen, The Various, Biomolecule

24

There has been considerable interest in the exposure doses that contribute to the various asbestos-associated diseases. Epidemiological studies have shown important differences in the contributions of the various fiber types to asbestos-related diseases, with the amphiboles showing a greater degree of potency as compared to chrysotile. However, epidemiological studies have occasionally provided misleading results. Over the past several decades, there have been several examples where fiber analysis using electron microscopy produced unexpected results which were important to our understanding of disease-exposure relationships. It is the purpose of this article to summarize these fiber analysis vignettes.

Concepts: Electron, Epidemiology, Scanning tunneling microscope, The Various

22

Interleukin-22 (IL-22) is involved in the development of lymphocytes and serves as a rapid and early source of the effector cytokines that are released in response to pathogen-induced changes in the microenvironment. Recent research has implicated IL-22 as a potential contributing factor to the spectrum of inflammation-related pancreatic diseases, particularly pancreatitis, fibrosis, carcinoma and diabetes. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the roles of IL-22 in the various pancreatic pathogenesis, providing insights into the underlying cellular and signaling mechanisms that will help guide future research into promising interventional targets with therapeutic potential.

Concepts: Diseases and disorders, Insulin, Glucagon, Pancreas, Pancreatic cancer, Futures contract, The Current, The Various

20

To illuminate patterns observed in International Cancer Benchmarking Programme studies by extending understanding of the various influences on presentation and referral with cancer symptoms.

Concepts: Medical terms, Baltic Sea, Europe, The Various, Northern Europe

13

Tuberculosis is often a difficult infection to treat. This review article summarizes the many manifestations of the disease and the major treatment options in the various contexts in which the disease occurs.

Concepts: Infectious disease, Major, The Various

8

Cooperation is necessary in many types of human joint activity and relations. Evidence suggests that cooperation has direct and indirect benefits for the cooperators. Given how beneficial cooperation is overall, it seems relevant to investigate the various ways of enhancing individuals' willingness to invest in cooperative endeavors. We studied whether ascription of a transparent collective goal in a joint action promotes cooperation in a group.

Concepts: Human, Ultraviolet, Human anatomy, The Various, Language acquisition

6

In their response to Geraghty, the PACE investigators state that they have “repeatedly addressed” the various methodological concerns raised about the trial. While this is true, these responses have repeatedly failed to provide satisfactory explanations for the trial’s very serious flaws. This commentary examines how the current response once again demonstrates the ways in which the investigators avoid acknowledging the obvious problems with PACE and offer non-answers instead-arguments that fall apart quickly under scrutiny.

Concepts: The Trial, The Current, The Various, Things Fall Apart, John Legend

6

The definition of incident type 2 diabetes varies across studies; hence, the actual incidence of type 2 diabetes in Japan is unclear. Here, we reviewed the various definitions of incident type 2 diabetes used in previous epidemiologic studies and estimated the diabetes incidence rate in Japan.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Diabetes mellitus type 2, Medical statistics, Incidence, Definition, Review, Meta-analysis, The Various