Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: The Technique


Cold water immersion (CWI) is a technique commonly used in post-exercise recovery. However, the procedures involved in the technique may vary, particularly in terms of water temperature and immersion time, and the most effective approach remains unclear.

Concepts: Energy, Effectiveness, Meta-analysis, Heat transfer, The Technique


Indications for intra-osseous (IO) infusion are increasing in adults requiring administration of fluids and medications during initial resuscitation. However, this route is rarely used nowadays due to a lack of knowlegde and training. We reviewed the current evidence for its use in adults requiring resuscitative procedures, the contraindications of the technique, and modalities for catheter implementation and skill acquisition.

Concepts: Skill, Training, Review, The Current, The Technique, Dreyfus model of skill acquisition


We have devised a modified seton technique that resects the external fistula tract while preserving the anal sphincter muscle. This study assessed the technique when used for the management of complex anal fistulas.

Concepts: Stomach, Muscular system, Fistula, The Technique, Sphincter, Anal fistula, Seton stitch, Anus


This is a surgical technique for arthrodesis of the thumb metacarpophalangeal joint using a low-profile plate. Using the principles of tension band fixation and interfragmentary compression, a high rate of fusion is achieved with a low incidence of complications. The technique is versatile allowing fixation at any desired position. It can be used in porotic bone and avoids the need for postoperative immobilization.

Concepts: Bone, Surgery, Joints, The Technique, Metacarpophalangeal joint, Arthrodesis


PURPOSE: Presumably, the technique of SLAP refixation has significant influence on outcome. This study analyzes and compares functional outcome and return to sports after arthroscopic suture anchor (SA) and arthroscopic transglenoidal suture (TS) repair of isolated SLAP-2 lesions. METHODS: Twenty-four competitive amateur athletes constituted the two treatment groups of this retrospective matched-pair analysis. In the SA group (n = 12), the mean age was 39.1 years (±12.0) and the mean follow-up period was 4.0 years (±0.6). In the TS group (n = 12), the mean age was 33.8 years (±12.0) and the mean follow-up period was 3.7 years (±0.9). The minimum follow-up period was 2.0 years. Primary outcome measures were the absolute constant-score (CS), the subjective shoulder value (SSV) as well as the ability to return to sports. RESULTS: The mean CS in the SA group was 91.6 (±5.5) compared to 81.3 (±15.5) in the TS group (p = 0.04). The mean SSV after SA repair was 96.9 (±4.6) compared to 80.0 (±20.8) after TS repair (p = 0.01). Both scores showed significantly higher standard deviations within the TS group (p < 0.05). Twelve of eighteen patients (67 %) were able to return to their overhead sports without restrictions (5/9 in the SA group and 7/9 in the TS group; p > 0.05). Fourteen of twenty-four patients (58 %) achieved their preinjury sports levels (8/12 in the SA group and 6/12 in the TS group; p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Superior objective and subjective shoulder function was obtained following arthroscopic SA repair compared to arthroscopic TS repair of isolated SLAP-2 lesions. In addition, results of SA repair were more predictable. However, nearly half of the athletes did not achieve full return to sports regardless of the applied technique of refixation.

Concepts: Arithmetic mean, Standard deviation, Surgical suture, Shoulder, The Technique, Anchor


Large area low-cost patterning is a challenging problem in graphene research. A resist-free, single-step, large area and cost effective soft lithographic patterning strategy is presented for graphene. The technique is applicable on any arbitrary substrate that needs to be covered with a graphene film and provides a viable route to large-area patterning of graphene for device applications.

Concepts: The Technique, Georgia Institute of Technology, Soft lithography


A method based on a double emulsion system (solid-in-water-in-oil-in-water) has been developed for the production of nanoparticles-in-microparticles (NIMs). The distribution of nanoparticles within the NIMs was explored using light and electron microscopy and through assessment of drug loading and release profiles. The extent of nanoparticle entrapment within the NIMs was found to be dependent on the state (wet vs. dry) in which the nanoparticles were introduced to the formulation. The technique was readily adaptable to produce NIMs of different morphologies. It is proposed that NIMs and this method to produce them have broad application in drug delivery research.

Concepts: Electron, Nanoparticle, Colloid, Gold, Scanning tunneling microscope, State, Distribution of wealth, The Technique


Our phase-one prospective study wants to evaluate the safety and tolerability of TECAR therapy in the treatment of Peyronie’s disease. From June 2011 to September 2012 we enrolled 70 patients. Each patient had been previously subjected to andrological examination, to a questionnaire for the evaluation of IPP and ED, and the SF-36 (V1) for the evaluation of the general state of health. The evaluation of pain was made using the VAS scale of pain. Every patient was subjected to TECAR treatment of the fibrotic plaque (both in resistive mode and in capacitive mode) for a total of three sessions carried out on consecutive days. We recorded a good compliance by patients; none of them reported side effects. Pain was decreased by the technique in 80% of the cases.The whole sample completed the study. Surprisingly enough those patients who complained also of erectile dysfunction, reported an improvement in sexual potency.

Concepts: Health care provider, Medicine, Medical terms, Patient, Illness, Erectile dysfunction, Peyronie's disease, The Technique


The World Health Organization and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention no longer recommend aspiration during intramuscular (IM) injections. The purpose of this study was to investigate the technique registered nurses (RNs) use during IM injections and incidence of blood aspiration. This descriptive study surveyed 164 RNs. Results noted that 74% of the sample continue to aspirate at least 90% of the time. Of the participants who continue to aspirate, only 3% aspirate for the recommended 5 to 10 s. Forty percent reported having aspirated blood at least once, whereas 6 RNs (4%) noted blood aspiration ≥13 times. Blood aspiration occurred most frequently in the dorsal gluteal (15%) and deltoid (12%). Based on the findings, it is recommended that RNs use a decision-making process to select the safest technique for IM injections. If a parental medication has different administration rates, dose, viscosity, or other concerns when given IM versus intravenously (IV), aspiration during IM administration should be implemented.

Concepts: Decision making, Nursing, Route of administration, World Health Organization, The Technique, Intramuscular injection, Aspiration, Aspirator


Studies of social learning and tradition formation under field conditions have recently gained momentum, but suffer from the limited control of socio-ecological factors thought to be responsible for transmission patterns. The use of artificial visual stimuli is a potentially powerful tool to overcome some of these problems. Here, in a field experiment, we used video images of unfamiliar conspecifics performing virtual demonstrations of foraging techniques. We tested 12 family groups of wild common marmosets. Six groups received video demonstrations (footage of conspecifics either pulling a drawer open or pushing a lid upwards, in an ‘artificial fruit’); the other six groups served as controls (exposed to a static image of a conspecific next to the fruit). Subjects in video groups were more manipulative and successful in opening the fruit than controls; they were also more likely to use the technique they had witnessed and thus could serve as live models for other family members. To our knowledge, this is the first study that used video demonstrations in the wild and demonstrated the potent force of social learning, even from unfamiliar conspecifics, under field conditions.

Concepts: Experiment, Force, Demonstration, Problem solving, Seed, The Technique, The Wild, Patrick Warburton