SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: The Spotlight

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With input from the members of the Board of Reviewing Editors and editorial staff, Science Signaling puts the spotlight on the hottest signaling research of 2012. The connection between signaling and metabolism continues to be an important area. Signaling breakthroughs in cancer, immunology, developmental biology, neuroscience, and microbiology all made the list. Structural and molecular insights into signaling proteins and networks are also beginning to not only yield potential therapeutic targets but also lead to successful efforts between synthetic biologists and clinicians in the treatment of cancer.

Concepts: DNA, Medicine, Molecular biology, Biology, Energy, Virus, List, The Spotlight

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This tutorial review will introduce and explore the fundamental aspects of nanopore (bio)sensing, fabrication, modification, and the emerging technologies and applications that both intrigue and inspire those working in and around the field. Although nanopores can be classified into two categories, solid-state and biological, they are essentially two sides of the same coin. For instance, both garner popularity due to their ability to confine analytes of interest to a nanoscale volume. Due to the vast diversity of nanopore platforms and applications, no single review can cover the entire landscape of published work in the field. Therefore, in this article focus will be placed on recent advancements and developments taking place in the field of solid-state nanopores. It should be stated that the intention of this tutorial review is not to cite all articles relating to solid-state nanopores, but rather to highlight recent, select developments that will hopefully benefit the new and seasoned scientist alike. Initially we begin with the fundamentals of solid-state nanopore sensing. Then the spotlight is shone on the sophisticated fabrication methods that have their origins in the semiconductor industry. One inherent advantage of solid-state nanopores is in the ease of functionalizing the surface with a range of molecules carrying functional groups. Therefore, an entire section is devoted to highlighting various chemical and bio-molecular modifications and explores how these permit the development of novel sensors with specific targets and functions. The review is completed with a discussion on novel detection strategies using nanopores. Although the most popular mode of nanopore sensing is based upon what has come to be known as ionic-current blockade sensing, there is a vast, growing literature based around exploring alternative detection techniques to further expand on the versatility of the sensors. Such techniques include optical, electronic, and force based methods. It is perhaps fair to say that these new frontiers have caused further excitement within the sensing community.

Concepts: Molecule, Chemistry, Semiconductor, Mod, Nanopore, Nanopore sequencing, The Spotlight

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To describe the design, methods and first results of a survey on obesity-related behaviours and body mass index (BMI) in adults living in neighbourhoods from five urban regions across Europe.

Concepts: Sampling, Cross-sectional study, Mass, Body mass index, Cross-sectional analysis, Body weight, The Spotlight

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Low carbohydrate diets are again in the spotlight and have been identified as particularly appropriate for people with type 2 diabetes. There is confusion amongst both health professionals and people with diabetes about the suitability of these diets. This review aims to provide an overview of the latest evidence and to explore the role of low carbohydrate diets for people with type 2 diabetes.

Concepts: Nutrition, Insulin, Diabetes mellitus type 2, Obesity, Low-carbohydrate diet, The Spotlight

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Canine leishmaniosis (CanL) has been in the spotlight since the 2009 outbreak of human leishmaniosis in Madrid. In the framework of the Leishmaniosis Surveillance Programme set up in Madrid, this study examines Leishmania-specific seroprevalences in stray dogs for the outbreak area and rest of the Madrid region over the period spanning from the outbreak to the present (2009-2016). These data are of interest because stray dogs could be sentinels for disease surveillance in endemic areas. Since 2011, we have also been monitoring owned dogs in the outbreak area.

Concepts: Present, Time, Epidemiology, Disease, Infectious disease, Area, Madrid, The Spotlight

4

The relation between neighbourhood environmental factors and domain-specific sedentary behaviours among adults remains unclear. This study firstly aims to examine the association of perceived and objectively measured neighbourhood safety, aesthetics, destinations and functionality with transport-related, work-related and leisure-time sedentary behaviour. Secondly, the study aims to assess whether these associations are moderated by age, gender or educational level.

Concepts: Psychology, Environment, Educational psychology, The Association, Behavior, Human behavior, The Spotlight

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To gain insight into community nurses' experiences and how they make sense of the expertise they offer in their role BACKGROUND: Globally, the spotlight is currently on community nursing expertise because of the movement of hospital-based to community- based care. Caring for people at home is no longer solely concerned with prevention, but delivering complex care to patients who are acutely unwell or at the end of their life. Little is known about the distinct expertise of community nurses, or their contribution to patient outcomes. There is a need to examine expertise in this group in order to inform current and future care provision within community settings.

Concepts: Patient, Experience, Insight, The Spotlight

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Siblings of children with cancer experience psychosocial distress during the illness and after bereavement, but often stand outside the spotlight of attention and care. This study explored bereaved siblings' advice to health care professionals (HCPs) working with children with cancer and their families.

Concepts: Health care, Health care provider, Medicine, Healthcare, Health, Epidemiology, Illness, The Spotlight

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Vitamin D deficiency is an oft overlooked and underevaluated condition that is widespread in patient-athletes, including the elite and professional. Although the symptomatology of this deficiency is well known in the general population (osteoporosis and increased risk of fracture), the symptom of muscle fatigue is not. It is only recently that the association between vitamin D deficiency and muscle fatigue in professional athletes has been placed in the spotlight. However, vitamin D deficiency should be of increasing concern for orthopaedists in regard to all athletes. In the elite collegiate/professional ranks, this condition may lead to detrimental injuries with career-altering effects. Although this condition may not affect career and financial well-being for most patients, modifications in athletic performance and lifestyle are still of utmost value to any athlete. Although I do not condone ordering vitamin D levels as a screening tool, nor broadly prescribing supplements to all patient-athletes, I do believe that it is warranted if certain “high-risk” criteria are met.

Concepts: Osteoporosis, Vitamin D, Cancer, Symptoms, Vitamins, The Spotlight, Professional sports, Elite

0

Beginning in 2008, metal-on-metal prostheses have been in the spotlight owing to much higher revision rates than expected. Adverse local tissue reactions have been well described in the literature as potential complications.

Concepts: Implants, Hip replacement, Prosthetics, The Spotlight