Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: The Program


Given the magnitude of increasing heart failure mortality, multidisciplinary approaches, in the form of disease management programs and other integrative models of care, are recommended to optimize treatment outcomes. Remote monitoring, either as structured telephone support or telemonitoring or a combination of both, is fast becoming an integral part of many disease management programs. However, studies reporting on the evaluation of real-world heart failure remote monitoring programs are scarce.

Concepts: Heart failure, Vector space, Computer program, Program, The Program, Programming language, Project management, Program management


Exercise programs targeting muscle strength and balance can reduce falls. The study aimed to compare the Otago Exercise Program (OEP), originally designed as supervised home training (HT), with the same programme performed as GT, on functional balance and muscle strength, mobility, fall efficacy and self-reported health.

Concepts: Randomized controlled trial, Muscle, Physical exercise, Computer program, Program, The Program, Exercise physiology, Program management


Despite attention to the health of low-income children in Head Start, little is known about the health of adults working for the program. The objective of our study was to compare the physical and mental health of women working in Pennsylvania Head Start programs with the health of US women who have similar sociodemographic characteristics.

Concepts: Computer program, Program, The Program, Program management


Substantial benefits are realized through the use of read-across and in silico techniques to fill data gaps for structurally similar substances. Considerable experience in applying these techniques was gained under two voluntary high production volume chemical programs - the International Council of Chemical Associations' (ICCA) Cooperative Chemicals Assessment Programme (with the cooperation of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s HPV Challenge Program. These programs led to the compilation and public availability of baseline sets of health and environmental effects data for thousands of chemicals. The American Cleaning Institute’s (ACI) contribution to these national and global efforts included the compilation of these datasets for 261 substances. Chemicals that have structural similarities, are likely to have similar environmental fate, physical-chemical and toxicological properties, which was confirmed by examining available data from across the range of substances within categories of structurally similar HPV chemicals. These similarities allowed the utilization of read-across, trend analysis techniques and qualitative structure activity relationship ((Q)SAR) tools to fill data gaps. This paper presents the first quantification of actual benefits resulting from avoided testing through the use of read-across and in silico tools. Specifically, in the evaluation of these 261 noted substances, the use of 100,000-150,000 test animals and the expenditures of $50,000,000 to $70,000,000 (US) were avoided.

Concepts: Structure, Data analysis, Computer program, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Program, The Program, Environmentalism, Similarity


To describe changes in characteristics of directors of outpatient opioid agonist treatment (OAT) programs, and to examine the association between directors' characteristics and low methadone dosage.

Concepts: Dose, Opioid, The Association, Computer program, Program, The Program, Buprenorphine, Program management


What is the effectiveness of gym-based exercise versus home-based exercise with telephone follow-up amongst adults with chronic conditions who have completed a short-term exercise program supervised by a health professional?

Concepts: Health care, Randomized controlled trial, Computer program, Program, The Program, Program management


Community-based walking programs represent a low-cost, accessible approach to increasing physical activity among inactive adults. However, recruiting participants from vulnerable and hard-to-reach groups remains a challenge. This study examined the reach, retention, sociodemographic and health characteristics, physical activity levels and motivators of participants in Heart Foundation Walking, a nationwide Australian community-based walking program.

Concepts: Participation, E-participation, Computer program, Program, The Program, Program management


Due to the continual physical, physiological and psychological demands of elite level soccer increasing the incidence and risk of injuries, preventative training programs have become a common feature of soccer players training schedule. The aim of the current investigation was to examine the effectiveness of a structured injury prevention program on the number of muscle injuries as well as the total number of injuries within elite professional soccer. The present study was conducted over two consecutive seasons, of which the first (2008-2009) being the intervention season and the second the control season (2009-2010). In total, 26 and 23 elite male professional soccer players competing within the Scottish Premier League and European competition participated. The training programme was performed twice weekly for the entirety of the season (58 prevention sessions). The results revealed an increase in the total number of injuries within the intervention season (88 vs. 72), however this was largely due to the greater number of contusion injuries sustained within the intervention season (n=44) when compared to control season (n=23). Significantly less muscle injuries were observed during the intervention season (moderate effect) and this occurred concomitant with a bigger squad size (large effect, p<0.001). The findings from this study identify a multi component injury prevention training program may be appropriate for reducing the number of muscle injuries during a season but may not be adequate to reduce all other injuries.

Concepts: Program, The Program, Order theory, Accident, Scottish Premier League


Almost half of older people receiving community care fall each year and this rate has not improved in the last decade. Falls prevention programs targeted at this group are uncommon, and expensively delivered by university trained allied health professionals.

Concepts: Health care, Computer program, Geriatrics, Autumn, Program, The Program, Allied health professions, Program management


A meta-analytic review of the Triple P-Positive Parenting program by Wilson et al., recently published in BMC Medicine, claimed to demonstrate that although Triple P is widely disseminated and adopted, the evidence attesting to the effectiveness of the program is not as convincing as it may appear. Although this review addresses the important issue of evaluation and reporting methods within evidence-based interventions, we contend that the Wilson et al. review contains a number of significant conceptual, methodological and interpretational inadequacies that render the key conclusions of their review problematic. See related article

Concepts: Scientific method, The Canon of Medicine, Systematic review, The Key, Program, The Program, Empirical research, Program management