Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: The Passage


Nuclear pore complexes form a selective filter that allows the rapid passage of transport factors (TFs) and their cargoes across the nuclear envelope, while blocking the passage of other macromolecules. Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) containing phenylalanyl-glycyl (FG) rich repeats line the pore and interact with TFs. However, the reason that transport can be both fast and specific remains undetermined, through lack of atomic-scale information on the behavior of FGs and their interaction with TFs. We used NMR spectroscopy to address these issues. We show that FG repeats are highly dynamic IDPs, stabilized by the cellular environment. Fast transport of TFs is supported because the rapid motion of FG motifs allows them to exchange on and off TFs extremely quickly through transient interactions. Because TFs uniquely carry multiple pockets for FG repeats, only they can form the many frequent interactions needed for specific passage between FG repeats to cross the NPC.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Cell nucleus, Nuclear magnetic resonance, NMR spectroscopy, Interaction, Nuclear pore, Nuclear envelope, The Passage


The passage of the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act has necessitated the execution of timely, innovative, and policy-relevant tobacco control research to inform Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulatory and messaging efforts. With recent dramatic changes to tobacco product availability and patterns of use, nationally representative data on tobacco-related perceptions and behaviors are vital, especially for vulnerable populations.

Concepts: Tobacco, Nicotine, Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, The Passage, Tobacco control


Since the passage of the Affordable Care Act, there has been much speculation about how many employers will stop offering health insurance once the act’s major coverage provisions take effect. Some observers predict little aggregate effect, but others believe that 2014 will mark the beginning of the end for our current system of employer-sponsored insurance. We use theoretical and empirical evidence to address the question, “How will employers' offerings of health insurance change under health reform?” First, we describe the economic reasons why employers offer insurance. Second, we recap the relevant provisions of health reform and use our economic framework to consider how they may affect employers' offerings. Third, we review the various predictions that have been made about those offerings under health reform. Finally, we offer some observations on interpreting early data from 2014.

Concepts: Health care, Scientific method, Healthcare reform, Health insurance, Economics, Empiricism, Hypothesis, The Passage


This study evaluated the efficacy of the PASSAGE Program, a structured multicomponent interdisciplinary group intervention for the self-management of FMS.

Concepts: Randomized controlled trial, Efficacy, The Passage, Stephen Dorff


The passage of the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act (MACRA) replaces the sustainable growth rate with a payment system based on quality and alternative payment model participation. The general structure of payment under MACRA is included in the statute, but the rules and regulations defining its implementation are yet to be formalized. It is imperative that the radiology profession inform policymakers on their role in health care under MACRA. This will require a detailed understanding of prior legislative and nonlegislative actions that helped shape MACRA. To that end, the authors provide a detailed historical context for payment reform, focusing on the payment quality initiatives and alternative payment model demonstrations that helped provide the foundation of future MACRA-driven payment reform.

Concepts: Time, Health care, Health insurance, Law, Model, Past, The Passage, Sustainable growth rate


This is the first study to examine the prevalence of self-reported smoke-free rules for private cars and homes before and after the passage of a smoke-free vehicle law.

Concepts: Transport, Walking, The Passage, Vehicle, Automobile, Brake, Vehicles


Constipation, mainly manifesting as abdominal discomfort and painful defecation, is considered as a chronic disorder. Due to a lack of effective therapy, it imposes a significant economic burden and greatly impacts patients' quality of life which prompt searches for new, original approaches. Based on the research of vibrating capsule (VC) carried out by Ron et al., we investigated the safety and efficacy of an innovative, multi-mode VC in terms of its effect on defecation in animal studies. The parameters associated with different operation modes of VCs can be detected and adjusted by smartphone controlled external configuration device (ECD). The results of blood tests, physiological parameters, CT scan and pathological examination showed no significant abnormality, which undoubtedly confirmed the safety of VCs. For efficacy studies, defecation frequency of beagles increased after administration of these capsules without influence on stool characters. Meanwhile, the mean time of capsule evacuation tended to be reduced while showing no significant difference between different modes. In summary, this study elucidates the safety and effectiveness of VC in prompting the passage of gastrointestinal walls thus greatly increasing the defecation frequency. This study innovatively displays the promising application of VC in the treatment of constipation.

Concepts: Effect, Statistical significance, Effectiveness, Gastroenterology, Efficacy, Feces, The Passage, Qualities of thought


In May 2013, Los Angeles voters approved Proposition D, a regulatory measure that set zoning restrictions and capped the number of dispensaries at those that opened before 2007. Specifically, Proposition D stated that only 135 dispensaries were allowed to be in operation and set zoning restrictions prohibiting dispensaries from operating in certain areas. We first assessed whether the legislation changed the physical availability of medical marijuana via dispensaries in Los Angeles. We then used two data points 1 year prior to and 1 year following the implementation of Proposition D to determine if the locations of where the dispensaries are located changed after the enactment of Proposition D. Using a cross-sectional, ecological design, we investigated the change in dispensaries from 2012 to 2014 for Census tracts within the city of Los Angeles (N = 1000). We analyzed data using spatial error regression models that included controls for spatial autocorrelation due to the spatial structure of the data. We found that while the total number of dispensaries in Los Angeles remained largely unchanged, the spatial distribution of dispensaries did change in meaningful ways. Census tracts with more dispensaries in 2014 were significantly and positively associated with the proportion of African American residents and negatively associated with the percent of area that was commercially zoned. In other words, dispensaries opened in areas with a higher proportion of Black residents and closed in Census tract areas that had a higher percentage of commercially zoned land. Findings from this study highlight the importance of continuously regulating dispensary locations. Results suggest that likely as a result of changing regulations, dispensaries may be attempting to conceal their presence and locate in areas that will not advocate against their presence.

Concepts: Regression analysis, Integral, Change, Regulation, The Passage, Tess Gaerthé, Dispensary


The research literature on relational betrayal in a committed relationship has focused on the resulting trauma from the betrayal; however, few studies investigated the potential for posttraumatic growth following a relational betrayal. This study investigated the presence of posttraumatic growth in relationally betrayed women. The research focused on women’s perceptions of the relational betrayal, and factors that facilitated posttraumatic growth. Results indicated relationally betrayed women perceived the betrayal as a traumatic event, to the extent that some met criteria for PTSD diagnosis. The passage of time was significant corollary to posttraumatic growth when moderated by a PTSD diagnosis. Finally, certain resources were reported to be more helpful than others in the development of posttraumatic growth. Clinical implications are presented.

Concepts: Psychology, Cognition, Perception, Psychological trauma, Posttraumatic stress disorder, Cultural studies, Philosophy of perception, The Passage


It is well established that extinguished fears are restored with the passage of time or a change in physical context. These fear restoration phenomena are believed to mimic the conditions under which relapse occurs in patients that have been treated for anxiety disorders by means of cue-exposure therapy. Here, we used a rodent model to extinguish relapsed fear and assess whether this new extinction prevents further relapse. We found that activity in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) is required to initially extinguish conditioned fear, but this activity was not necessary to subsequently extinguish relapsed fear. That is, extinction of spontaneously recovered or renewed fear was spared by BLA inactivation. Yet, this BLA-independent learning of extinction did not protect against further relapse: extinction of relapsed fear conducted without BLA activity was still likely to return after the passage of time or a shift in physical context. These findings have important clinical implications. They indicate that pharmacological agents with anxiolytic properties may disrupt initial cue-exposure therapy but may be useful when therapy is again needed due to relapse. However, they also suggest that these agents will not protect against further relapse, implying the need for developing drugs that target other brain regions involved in fear inhibition.

Concepts: Anxiety, Amygdala, Anxiety disorder, Fear conditioning, Fear, Social anxiety, Social anxiety disorder, The Passage