Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: The Passage


Nuclear pore complexes form a selective filter that allows the rapid passage of transport factors (TFs) and their cargoes across the nuclear envelope, while blocking the passage of other macromolecules. Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) containing phenylalanyl-glycyl (FG) rich repeats line the pore and interact with TFs. However, the reason that transport can be both fast and specific remains undetermined, through lack of atomic-scale information on the behavior of FGs and their interaction with TFs. We used NMR spectroscopy to address these issues. We show that FG repeats are highly dynamic IDPs, stabilized by the cellular environment. Fast transport of TFs is supported because the rapid motion of FG motifs allows them to exchange on and off TFs extremely quickly through transient interactions. Because TFs uniquely carry multiple pockets for FG repeats, only they can form the many frequent interactions needed for specific passage between FG repeats to cross the NPC.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Cell nucleus, Nuclear magnetic resonance, NMR spectroscopy, Interaction, Nuclear pore, Nuclear envelope, The Passage


The passage of the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act has necessitated the execution of timely, innovative, and policy-relevant tobacco control research to inform Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulatory and messaging efforts. With recent dramatic changes to tobacco product availability and patterns of use, nationally representative data on tobacco-related perceptions and behaviors are vital, especially for vulnerable populations.

Concepts: Tobacco, Nicotine, Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, The Passage, Tobacco control


Since the passage of the Affordable Care Act, there has been much speculation about how many employers will stop offering health insurance once the act’s major coverage provisions take effect. Some observers predict little aggregate effect, but others believe that 2014 will mark the beginning of the end for our current system of employer-sponsored insurance. We use theoretical and empirical evidence to address the question, “How will employers' offerings of health insurance change under health reform?” First, we describe the economic reasons why employers offer insurance. Second, we recap the relevant provisions of health reform and use our economic framework to consider how they may affect employers' offerings. Third, we review the various predictions that have been made about those offerings under health reform. Finally, we offer some observations on interpreting early data from 2014.

Concepts: Health care, Scientific method, Healthcare reform, Health insurance, Economics, Empiricism, Hypothesis, The Passage


In May 2013, Los Angeles voters approved Proposition D, a regulatory measure that set zoning restrictions and capped the number of dispensaries at those that opened before 2007. Specifically, Proposition D stated that only 135 dispensaries were allowed to be in operation and set zoning restrictions prohibiting dispensaries from operating in certain areas. We first assessed whether the legislation changed the physical availability of medical marijuana via dispensaries in Los Angeles. We then used two data points 1 year prior to and 1 year following the implementation of Proposition D to determine if the locations of where the dispensaries are located changed after the enactment of Proposition D. Using a cross-sectional, ecological design, we investigated the change in dispensaries from 2012 to 2014 for Census tracts within the city of Los Angeles (N = 1000). We analyzed data using spatial error regression models that included controls for spatial autocorrelation due to the spatial structure of the data. We found that while the total number of dispensaries in Los Angeles remained largely unchanged, the spatial distribution of dispensaries did change in meaningful ways. Census tracts with more dispensaries in 2014 were significantly and positively associated with the proportion of African American residents and negatively associated with the percent of area that was commercially zoned. In other words, dispensaries opened in areas with a higher proportion of Black residents and closed in Census tract areas that had a higher percentage of commercially zoned land. Findings from this study highlight the importance of continuously regulating dispensary locations. Results suggest that likely as a result of changing regulations, dispensaries may be attempting to conceal their presence and locate in areas that will not advocate against their presence.

Concepts: Regression analysis, Integral, Change, Regulation, The Passage, Tess Gaerthé, Dispensary


This study evaluated the efficacy of the PASSAGE Program, a structured multicomponent interdisciplinary group intervention for the self-management of FMS.

Concepts: Randomized controlled trial, Efficacy, The Passage, Stephen Dorff


Girls and women who bear children owing to wartime sexual violence committed by armed actors face challenges in gaining acceptance on return to their families and societies. This study analyses the lives of women survivors and their children born of wartime sexual violence in Uganda. It draws on a population-based survey of 1,844 households in the Acholi and Lango sub-regions of northern Uganda, as well as on in-depth qualitative interviews conducted in 2014 and 2015 with 67 purposefully selected women survivors of wartime sexual violence. The study finds that: stigma is linked to broader gender discriminatory sociocultural norms and practices and changes under different circumstances; women’s economic agency is essential to reducing stigma; households with members who suffered war-related sexual violence experienced significantly higher rates of violence post conflict than did other households; and the passage of time is less of a determining factor in their acceptance and reintegration than previously thought.

Concepts: Family, Gender, Sociology, Uganda, The Passage, Sexism, Lord's Resistance Army, Acholi


The passage of the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act (MACRA) replaces the sustainable growth rate with a payment system based on quality and alternative payment model participation. The general structure of payment under MACRA is included in the statute, but the rules and regulations defining its implementation are yet to be formalized. It is imperative that the radiology profession inform policymakers on their role in health care under MACRA. This will require a detailed understanding of prior legislative and nonlegislative actions that helped shape MACRA. To that end, the authors provide a detailed historical context for payment reform, focusing on the payment quality initiatives and alternative payment model demonstrations that helped provide the foundation of future MACRA-driven payment reform.

Concepts: Time, Health care, Health insurance, Law, Model, Past, The Passage, Sustainable growth rate


This is the first study to examine the prevalence of self-reported smoke-free rules for private cars and homes before and after the passage of a smoke-free vehicle law.

Concepts: Transport, Walking, The Passage, Vehicle, Automobile, Brake, Vehicles


Prior to the Affordable Care Act, as many as 1.3 million veterans lacked health insurance. With the passage of the Affordable Care Act, veterans now have new pathways to coverage through Medicaid expansion in those states that chose to expand Medicaid and through private coverage options offered through the Health Insurance Marketplace. We examined the impact of the ACA on health insurance coverage for veterans in expansion and non-expansion states and for urban and rural veterans.

Concepts: Health care, Health insurance, Economics, Change, Medicaid, Insurance, The Passage, Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act


High temperatures were investigated to manage blueberry maggot (Rhagoletis mendax Curran; Diptera: Tephritidae) in field and postharvest situations. To estimate lethal combinations of high temperatures/duration of exposure, blueberry maggot pupae were immersed in water at various temperatures during either 1 or 30 s in the laboratory. Treatments such as 70°C (1 s) or 55°C (30 s) caused 100% mortality of blueberry maggot pupae. In a lowbush blueberry field, soil temperatures at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 cm depth were measured with thermocouples following the passage of a flamethrower attached to a tractor in the fall. While the temperatures reached up to ca. 80°C for ca. 1 s at the soil surface, they were <10°C at depths of 3, 4, and 5 cm. In field situations, the energy required to kill all pupae would be expensive to deliver with a flamethrower and this would also cause environmental concerns. An example of application concerning the use of high temperatures in a postharvest situation is discussed, notably immersion of reusable containers in hot water in compliance with Canadian Food Inspection Agency Directive D-02-04 (2015) to prevent dissemination of R. mendax in uninfested areas.

Concepts: Soil, The Passage, Tephritidae, Blueberry, Rhagoletis, Rhagoletis mendax