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Concept: The Parallel


Keiner, M, Sander, A, Wirth, K, Caruso, O, Immesberger, P, and Zawieja, M. Strength performance in youth: trainability of adolescents and children in the back and front squats. J Strength Cond Res 27(2): 357-362, 2013-A basic question for many athletic coaches pertains to the maximum attainable strength level for youth athletes. The aim of this investigation was to establish reference values for the strength performance in the front and back squats in youth athletes. The strength performance in front and back squats of 141 elite youth soccer players was tested by a 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and 1RM related to bodyweight (SREL). The subjects aged between 11 and 19 years and were divided into 2 groups and 4 subgroups (A = younger than 19 years, B = younger than 17 years, C = younger than 15 years, and D = younger than 13 years). For approximately 2 years, one group (control group [CG]) only participated in routine soccer training and the other group (strength training group [STG]) participated in an additional strength training program along with the routine soccer training. Additionally, the strength performance in a 5RM in both squat variants of 105 young elite weightlifters (National Weightlifting Organization Baden Württemberg, [BWG]) was examined to show the high level of trainability of children and adolescents and to determine the reference strength values for young athletes. The STG performed in the parallel front squat SREL in the subgroups A 1.7 +/- 0.2, B 1.6 +/- 0.2, C 1.4 +/-0.2 and D 0.9 +/- 0.3. The STG had significantly (p < 0.001) higher strength values in 1RM and SREL than CG. The BWG had higher strength values than STG, but the BWG was not part of the statistical analysis because of the different test protocols (1RM vs. 5RM). Our data show that the SREL in parallel squat for young elite athletes with long-term training experience should be a minimum of 2.0 for 16- to 19-year-olds, 1.5 for 13- to 15-year-olds, and 0.7 for 11- to 12-year-olds.

Concepts: Group, Strength training, Weight training, The Parallel, Isometric exercise, Squatting, Physical strength, Weightlifting


The integration of compressed sensing and parallel imaging (CS-PI) has shown an increased popularity in recent years to accelerate MR imaging. Among them, calibration-free techniques have presented encouraging performances due to its capability in robustly handling the sensitivity information. Unfortunately, existing calibration-free methods have only explored joint-sparsity with direct analysis transform projections. To further exploit joint-sparsity and improve reconstruction accuracy, this paper proposes to Learn joINt-sparse coDes for caliBrationfree parallEl mR imaGing (LINDBERG) by modelling the parallel MR imaging problem as an ℓ2-ℓF-ℓ2,1 minimization objective with an ℓ2 norm constraining data fidelity, Frobenius norm enforcing sparse representation error and the ℓ2,1 mixed norm triggering joint sparsity across multichannels. A corresponding algorithm has been developed to alternatively update the sparse representation, sensitivity encoded images and K-space data. Then the final image is produced as the square root of sum of squares (SoS) of all channel images. Experimental results on both physical phantom and in vivo datasets show that the proposed method is comparable and even superior to state-of-theart CS-PI reconstruction approaches. Specifically, LINDBERG has presented strong capability in suppressing noise and artifacts while reconstructing MR images from highly undersampled multi-channel measurements.

Concepts: Linear algebra, IMAGE, Sparse matrix, The Parallel, Square root, Square number


The aim of this study was to determine if runners who use concomitantly different pairs of running shoes are at a lower risk of running-related injury (RRI). Recreational runners (n = 264) participated in this 22-week prospective follow-up and reported all information about their running session characteristics, other sport participation and injuries on a dedicated Internet platform. A RRI was defined as a physical pain or complaint located at the lower limbs or lower back region, sustained during or as a result of running practice and impeding planned running activity for at least 1 day. One-third of the participants (n = 87) experienced at least one RRI during the observation period. The adjusted Cox regression analysis revealed that the parallel use of more than one pair of running shoes was a protective factor [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.614; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.389-0.969], while previous injury was a risk factor (HR = 1.722; 95%CI = 1.114-2.661). Additionally, increased mean session distance (km; HR = 0.795; 95%CI = 0.725-0.872) and increased weekly volume of other sports (h/week; HR = 0.848; 95%CI = 0.732-0.982) were associated with lower RRI risk. Multiple shoe use and participation in other sports are strategies potentially leading to a variation of the load applied to the musculoskeletal system. They could be advised to recreational runners to prevent RRI.

Concepts: Regression analysis, Statistics, Proportional hazards models, Risk, Prediction interval, Shoe, Footwear, The Parallel


Decision-making in the real world presents the challenge of requiring flexible yet prompt behavior, a balance that has been characterized in terms of a trade-off between a slower, prospective goal-directed model-based (MB) strategy and a fast, retrospective habitual model-free (MF) strategy. Theory predicts that flexibility to changes in both reward values and transition contingencies can determine the relative influence of the two systems in reinforcement learning, but few studies have manipulated the latter. Therefore, we developed a novel two-level contingency change task in which transition contingencies between states change every few trials; MB and MF control predict different responses following these contingency changes, allowing their relative influence to be inferred. Additionally, we manipulated the rate of contingency changes in order to determine whether contingency change volatility would play a role in shifting subjects between a MB and MF strategy. We found that human subjects employed a hybrid MB/MF strategy on the task, corroborating the parallel contribution of MB and MF systems in reinforcement learning. Further, subjects did not remain at one level of MB/MF behaviour but rather displayed a shift towards more MB behavior over the first two blocks that was not attributable to the rate of contingency changes but rather to the extent of training. We demonstrate that flexibility to contingency changes can distinguish MB and MF strategies, with human subjects utilizing a hybrid strategy that shifts towards more MB behavior over blocks, consequently corresponding to a higher payoff.

Concepts: Psychology, Human, Behavior, Human behavior, Strategy, The Parallel, The Real World, Distinguish


Second generation area-based indices of multiple deprivation have been extensively used in the UK over the last 15 years. They resulted from significant developments in political, technical, and conceptual spheres for deprivation data. We review the parallel development of environmental justice research and how and when environmental data was incorporated into these indices. We explain the transfer of these methods from the UK to Germany and assess the progress internationally in developing such indices. Finally, we illustrate how billions of pounds in the UK was allocated by using these tools to tackle neighbourhood deprivation and environmental justice to address the determinants of health.

Concepts: United Kingdom, Germany, The Parallel, Pound sterling


The parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) assay has emerged as an alternative method of targeted quantification. The PRM assay is performed in a high resolution and high mass accuracy mode on a mass spectrometer. This review presents the features that make PRM a highly specific and selective method for targeted quantification using quadrupole-Orbitrap hybrid instruments. In addition, this review discusses the label-based and label-free methods of quantification that can be performed with the targeted approach.

Concepts: Spectroscopy, Mass spectrometry, Classical mechanics, Chemical structure, Resolution, Measuring instruments, Mass chromatogram, The Parallel


Objective: A group-based eating disorder prevention program wherein young women explore the costs of pursuing the thin ideal reduces eating disorder risk factors and symptoms. However, it can be challenging to identify school clinicians to effectively deliver the intervention. The present study compares the effects of a new Internet-based version of this prevention program, which could facilitate dissemination, to the group-based program and to educational video and educational brochure control conditions at 1- and 2-year follow-up. Method: Female college students with body dissatisfaction (n = 107; M age = 21.6, SD = 6.6) were randomized to these 4 conditions. Results: Internet participants showed reductions in eating disorder risk factors and symptoms relative to the 2 control conditions at 1- and 2-year follow-up (M -d = .34 and .17, respectively), but the effects were smaller than parallel comparisons for the group participants (M -d = .48 and .43, respectively). Yet the Internet intervention produced large weight gain prevention effects relative to the 2 control conditions at 1- and 2-year follow-up (M -d = .80 and .73, respectively), which were larger than the parallel effects for the group intervention (M -d = .19 and .47, respectively). Conclusions: Although the effects for the Internet versus group intervention were similar at posttest, results suggest that the effects faded more quickly for the Internet intervention. However, the Internet intervention produced large weight gain prevention effects, implying that it might be useful for simultaneously preventing eating disordered behavior and unhealthy weight gain. (PsycINFO Database Record © 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

Concepts: Nutrition, World Wide Web, All rights reserved, Internet, The Parallel, History of the Internet, Instant messaging, Freedom of information


The ability to get down and up from the floor or to perform a floor transfer (FT) is a vital and useful skill for older adults at risk of falling. Little is known about the health-related factors that separate older adults who can perform FT independently from those who cannot. Therefore, the specific aims of this cross-sectional study are to (1) describe and compare health-related factors among older adults who were independent, assisted, or dependent in FT performance; and (2) establish the parallel reliability between self-reported and actual performance of FT.

Concepts: Cross-sectional study, Risk, Decision theory, Performance, Learning, Cross-sectional analysis, The Parallel


We demonstrate the successful fabrication of highly sensitive capillary pressure sensors using an innovative 3D printing method. Unlike conventional capacitive pressure sensors where the capacitance changes were due to the pressure-induced interspace variations between the parallel plate electrodes, in our capillary sensors the capacitance was determined by the extrusion and extraction of liquid medium and consequent changes of dielectric constants. Significant pressure sensitivity advances up to 547.9 KPa-1were achieved. Moreover, we suggest that our innovative capillary pressure sensors can adopt a wide range of liquid mediums, such as ethanol, deionized water, and their mixtures. The devices also showed stable performances upon repeated pressing cycles. The direct and versatile printing method combined with the significant performance advances are expected to find important applications in future stretchable and wearable electronics.

Concepts: Electricity, Water, Surface tension, Capacitor, The Parallel, Inductor, Dielectric, Mediumship


Adjuvant therapy with different bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) preparations is a well-established guideline-endorsed treatment for nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). Our observational study demonstrates equality between BCG and mitomycin C (MMC) treatment based on the oncological outcome. However, there were significant toxicity differences with higher rates in the BCG treatment group. The potential adverse effects of BCG in terms of a BCGitis are controversially discussed regarding their occurrence. As such, we sought to retrospectively evaluate the incidence in 106 consecutive patients. The BCG group demonstrated minor adverse effects in 78.4% and major adverse effects in 43.3%-partially coincident. Moreover, the parallel MMC group showed in 34.7% respectively 1.4% adverse events-as expected distinctly lower. In the context of this clinical discussion, we refer to alternative treatment concepts. Our data show a high clinical relevance of the patient’s primary comorbidity.

Concepts: Patient, Observational study, Chemotherapy, Demonstration, Alternative medicine, Adjuvant, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin, The Parallel