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Concept: The Next Decade

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Genomics is a Big Data science and is going to get much bigger, very soon, but it is not known whether the needs of genomics will exceed other Big Data domains. Projecting to the year 2025, we compared genomics with three other major generators of Big Data: astronomy, YouTube, and Twitter. Our estimates show that genomics is a “four-headed beast”-it is either on par with or the most demanding of the domains analyzed here in terms of data acquisition, storage, distribution, and analysis. We discuss aspects of new technologies that will need to be developed to rise up and meet the computational challenges that genomics poses for the near future. Now is the time for concerted, community-wide planning for the “genomical” challenges of the next decade.

Concepts: Science, Computational genomics, Universe, The Next Decade, Need, Astronomy, Knowledge, Physics

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PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review discusses the current developments in biomarkers for sepsis. RECENT FINDINGS: With quantum leaps in technology, an array of biomarkers will become available within the next decade as point-of-care tools that will likely revolutionize the management of sepsis. These markers will facilitate early and accurate diagnosis, faster recognition of impending organ dysfunction, optimal selection and titration of appropriate therapies, and more reliable prognostication of risk and outcome. These diagnostics will also enable an improved characterization of the biological phenotype underlying sepsis and thus a better appreciation of the condition. SUMMARY: The potential for novel biomarkers in sepsis will need to be properly realized with considerable funding, academic-industry collaborations, appropriate investigations and validation in heterogenous populations, but these developments do hold the capacity to transform patient care and outcomes.

Concepts: The Next Decade, The Current, Diagnosis, Patient, Outcome, Biology, Medicine, Natural selection

3

Over the past decade, the average risk score for Medicare Advantage (MA) enrollees has risen steadily relative to that for fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries, by approximately 1.5 percent per year. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) uses patient demographic and diagnostic information to calculate a risk score for each beneficiary, and these risk scores are used to determine payment to MA plans. The increase in relative MA risk scores is largely the result of successful efforts by MA plans to identify additional diagnoses, also known as coding intensity, and not of changes in enrollees' true health. In this article I estimate the effects of coding intensity on Medicare spending over the next decade. Under the moderately conservative assumption that coding intensity will decelerate, Medicare expenditures are expected to increase by approximately $200 billion. CMS has implemented a variety of strategies since 2010 that lessened the impact of coding intensity on Medicare spending; it has a variety of policy responses at its disposal to mitigate the impact going forward. The problem could be largely solved if CMS adjusted for coding intensity using the principle that MA beneficiaries are no healthier and no sicker than demographically similar fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries, returning to the budget-neutrality approach that was introduced in 2004 and later abandoned.

Concepts: Beneficiary, The Next Decade, Scores, Medicaid, Medicare and Medicaid, Health insurance, Medicare, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services

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On December 4th 2014, the International Centre for Reproductive Health (ICRH) at Ghent University organized an international conference on adolescent sexual and reproductive health (ASRH) and well-being. This viewpoint highlights two key messages of the conference - 1) ASRH promotion is broadening on different levels and 2) this broadening has important implications for research and interventions - that can guide this research field into the next decade. Adolescent sexuality has long been equated with risk and danger. However, throughout the presentations, it became clear that ASRH and related promotion efforts are broadening on different levels: from risk to well-being, from targeted and individual to comprehensive and structural, from knowledge transfer to innovative tools. However, indicators to measure adolescent sexuality that should accompany this broadening trend, are lacking. While public health related indicators (HIV/STIs, pregnancies) and their behavioral proxies (e.g. condom use, number of partners) are well developed and documented, there is a lack of consensus on indicators for the broader construct of adolescent sexuality, including sexual well-being and aspects of positive sexuality. Furthermore, the debate during the conference clearly indicated that experimental designs may not be the only appropriate study design to measure effectiveness of comprehensive, context-specific and long-term ASRH programmes, and that alternatives need to be identified and applied. Presenters at the conference clearly expressed the need to develop validated tools to measure different sub-constructs of adolescent sexuality and environmental factors. There was a plea to combine (quasi-)experimental effectiveness studies with evaluations of the development and implementation of ASRH promotion initiatives.

Concepts: The Next Decade, Condom, Clear, Sexuality, Research, Sexual intercourse, Sex education, Health

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Background: Diabetes affects an estimated 346 million persons globally, and total deaths from diabetes are projected to increase > 50% in the next decade. Understanding the role of environmental chemicals in the development or progression of diabetes is an emerging issue in environmental health. In 2011, the National Toxicology Program (NTP) organized a workshop to assess the literature for evidence of associations between certain chemicals, including inorganic arsenic, and diabetes and/or obesity to help develop a focused research agenda. This review is derived from discussions at that workshop.Objectives: Our objectives were to assess the consistency, strength/weaknesses, and biological plausibility of findings in the scientific literature regarding arsenic and diabetes and to identify data gaps and areas for future evaluation or research. The extent of the existing literature was insufficient to consider obesity as an outcome.Data Sources, Extraction, and Synthesis: Studies related to arsenic and diabetes or obesity were identified through PubMed and supplemented with relevant studies identified by reviewing the reference lists in the primary literature or review articles.Conclusions: Existing human data provide limited to sufficient support for an association between arsenic and diabetes in populations with relatively high exposure levels (≥ 150 µg arsenic/L in drinking water). The evidence is insufficient to conclude that arsenic is associated with diabetes in lower exposure (< 150 µg arsenic/L drinking water), although recent studies with better measures of outcome and exposure support an association. The animal literature as a whole was inconclusive; however, studies using better measures of diabetes-relevant end points support a link between arsenic and diabetes.

Concepts: The Next Decade, Diabetes mellitus, Assessment, Obesity, Water, Academic publishing, Evaluation, The Association

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Severe traumatic brain injury remains a major health-care problem worldwide. Although major progress has been made in understanding of the pathophysiology of this injury, this has not yet led to substantial improvements in outcome. In this report, we address present knowledge and its limitations, research innovations, and clinical implications. Improved outcomes for patients with severe traumatic brain injury could result from progress in pharmacological and other treatments, neural repair and regeneration, optimisation of surgical indications and techniques, and combination and individually targeted treatments. Expanded classification of traumatic brain injury and innovations in research design will underpin these advances. We are optimistic that further gains in outcome for patients with severe traumatic brain injury will be achieved in the next decade.

Concepts: Knowledge, Surgery, The Next Decade, Improve, Outcome, Brain, Medicine, Traumatic brain injury

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While advances in patient care and immunosuppressive pharmacotherapies have increased the lifespan of heart allograft recipients, there are still significant comorbidities post-transplantation and 5 year survival rates are still significant, at approximately 70%. The last decade has seen massive strides in genomics and other omics fields, including transcriptomics, with many of these advances now starting to impact heart transplant clinical care. This review summarizes a number of the key advances in genomics which are relevant for heart-transplant outcomes, and we highlight the translational potential that such knowledge may bring to patient-care within the next decade. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Concepts: The Next Decade, The Key, Transplantation medicine, Health care, All rights reserved, Copyright, Patient, Organ transplant

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There is a digital revolution taking place and biotechnology companies are slow to adapt. Many pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and industrial bio-production companies believe that software must be developed and maintained in-house and that data are more secure on internal servers than on the cloud. In fact, most companies in this space continue to employ large IT and software teams and acquire computational infrastructure in the form of in-house servers. This is due to a fear of the cloud not sufficiently protecting in-house resources and the belief that their software is valuable IP. Over the next decade, the ability to quickly adapt to changing market conditions, with agile software teams, will quickly become a compelling competitive advantage. Biotechnology companies that do not adopt the new regime may lose on key business metrics such as return on invested capital, revenue, profitability, and eventually market share.

Concepts: Information Age, Agile Manifesto, Capitalism, The Next Decade, Gackt, Agile software development

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Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) provide excellent platforms for the development of colorimetric biosensors as they can be easily functionalised, displaying different colours depending on their size, shape and state of aggregation. In the last decade, a variety of biosensors have been developed to exploit the extent of colour changes as nano-particles (NPs) either aggregate or disperse, in the presence of analytes. Of critical importance to the design of these methods is that the behaviour of the systems has to be reproducible and predictable. Much has been accomplished in understanding the interactions between a variety of substrates and AuNPs, and how these interactions can be harnessed as colorimetric reporters in biosensors. However, despite these developments, only a few biosensors have been used in practice for the detection of analytes in biological samples. The transition from proof of concept to market biosensors requires extensive long-term reliability and shelf life testing, and modification of protocols and design features to make them safe and easy to use by the population at large. Developments in the next decade will see the adoption of user friendly biosensors for point-of-care and medical diagnosis as innovations are brought to improve the analytical performances and usability of the current designs. This review discusses the mechanisms, strategies, recent advances and perspectives for the use of AuNPs as colorimetric biosensors.

Concepts: Usability, Aggregate, The Next Decade, Proof of concept, Nanoparticle, Gold, Shelf life, Color

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The current review aims to provide a current landscape and future trends of biomimetic nanoparticles which have the potential to revolutionize the field of transplantation in the next decade.

Concepts: Resistor, The Next Decade, The Current