SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: The Europeans

345

To critically evaluate the clinical implications of the use of non-fasting rather than fasting lipid profiles and to provide guidance for the laboratory reporting of abnormal non-fasting or fasting lipid profiles.

Concepts: Chemistry, The Europeans, Russia, Profiles

147

The European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (EFSUMB) competency assessment (COMPASS) for rheumatologists performing musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSUS) was developed and published 2 years ago. It consists of a 3 level competency system. The objective of this study was to evaluate how the EFSUMB COMPASS has been disseminated and implemented and to assess the potential obstacles encountered.

Concepts: Medicine, United States, Assessment, Switzerland, Implementation, The Europeans, Russia

131

Severe trauma continues to represent a global public health issue and mortality and morbidity in trauma patients remains substantial. A number of initiatives have aimed to provide guidance on the management of trauma patients. This document focuses on the management of major bleeding and coagulopathy following trauma and encourages adaptation of the guiding principles to each local situation and implementation within each institution.

Concepts: Health care, Public health, Health, Epidemiology, Blood, Bleeding, The Europeans, Avengers: The Initiative

115

The European Respiratory Society and American Thoracic Society (ERS/ATS) published guidelines in 2014 for the evaluation and treatment of asthma. These guidelines draw attention to management of patients with asthma that remains uncontrolled despite therapy. One phenotypic characteristic of therapy-resistant asthma is eosinophil elevation. It is important to better understand the burden of care gaps in this patient subgroup in order to support improved treatment strategies in the future.

Concepts: Immune system, White blood cell, Asthma, Patient, Future, The Europeans, Eosinophil granulocyte

115

Recently published asthma guidelines by the European Respiratory Society and the American Thoracic Society (ERS-ATS) define severe disease based on medication use and control level. These guidelines also emphasize that asthma severity involves certain biomarker phenotypes, one of them being eosinophilic phenotype. The quantification of the influence of eosinophil level toward predicting disease severity can help decision makers manage therapy better earlier.

Concepts: Scientific method, Medicine, Decision making, Asthma, Phenotype, Uncertainty, Control, The Europeans

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Chondroitin sulfate 800 mg/day (CS) pharmaceutical-grade in the management of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis consistent with the European Medicines Agency guideline.

Concepts: Chondroitin sulfate, Cartilage, Osteoarthritis, Celecoxib, The Europeans, Food and Drug Administration

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Intake of dietary fibre has been associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes, but few European studies have been published on this. We evaluated the association between intake of dietary fibre and type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct study and in a meta-analysis of prospective studies.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Oncology, Nutrition, Diabetes mellitus type 2, Diabetes mellitus, Obesity, Metabolic syndrome, The Europeans

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Background:Dementia is a life-limiting disease without curative treatments. Patients and families may need palliative care specific to dementia.Aim:To define optimal palliative care in dementia.Methods:Five-round Delphi study. Based on literature, a core group of 12 experts from 6 countries drafted a set of core domains with salient recommendations for each domain. We invited 89 experts from 27 countries to evaluate these in a two-round online survey with feedback. Consensus was determined according to predefined criteria. The fourth round involved decisions by the core team, and the fifth involved input from the European Association for Palliative Care.Results:A total of 64 (72%) experts from 23 countries evaluated a set of 11 domains and 57 recommendations. There was immediate and full consensus on the following eight domains, including the recommendations: person-centred care, communication and shared decision-making; optimal treatment of symptoms and providing comfort (these two identified as central to care and research); setting care goals and advance planning; continuity of care; psychosocial and spiritual support; family care and involvement; education of the health care team; and societal and ethical issues. After revision, full consensus was additionally reached for prognostication and timely recognition of dying. Recommendations on nutrition and dehydration (avoiding overly aggressive, burdensome or futile treatment) and on dementia stages in relation to care goals (applicability of palliative care) achieved moderate consensus.Conclusion:We have provided the first definition of palliative care in dementia based on evidence and consensus, a framework to provide guidance for clinical practice, policy and research.

Concepts: Health care, Clinical trial, Palliative care, Definition, Extensional definition, The Europeans, Curative care, The Core

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Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) accounted for 9% to 27% of all strokes worldwide in the last decade, with high early case fatality and poor functional outcome. In view of recent randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of the management of ICH, the European Stroke Organisation (ESO) has updated its evidence-based guidelines for the management of ICH.

Concepts: Evidence-based medicine, Randomized controlled trial, Stroke, Cerebral hemorrhage, The Europeans

28

BACKGROUND: Concerns have been voiced regarding the impact of the European Working Time Directive (EWTD) on surgical training. Following its introduction (August 2009) in Wexford General Hospital, Ireland Surgical Senior House Officers (SSHOs) are required to leave the hospital at 10 a.m. the morning after on-call duty. This study investigates the consequences of this practice on operative experience gained by six SSHOs in comparison to their predecessors. METHODS: A prospectively maintained database of surgical procedures was interrogated. Operative experience of SSHOs over a 5-month period (August-December 2009) was compared with that of colleagues 1 year earlier. The primary endpoint was overall operative volume of SSHOs. Subgroup analysis was performed of cases by primary operator versus assistant, intermediate versus minor procedures and by team. Comparison was made of operative volume between Group 1 (pre-EWTD) and Group 2 (post-EWTD). RESULTS: Operative volume for Group 1 (pre-EWTD) was 461 cases. Group 2 (post-EWTD) was involved in a total of 349 operations, showing a decrease of 24 % (P = 0.006). SSHOs in Group 1 (pre-EWTD) had been the primary operator in 109 cases compared to 87 in Group 2 (post-EWTD), demonstrating a reduction of 20 % (P = 0.06). Most worryingly, there was a reduction of 63 % (P = 0.04) in the intermediate cases performed as operating surgeon in Group 2 (post-EWTD). CONCLUSIONS: The present data set demonstrates a significant reduction in operative experience gained by SSHOs after local implementation of the EWTD. A major challenge facing Irish surgical training over the next decade is reduced operative exposure in the clinical setting.

Concepts: Hospital, Surgery, Group theory, Demonstration, The Europeans, Senior house officer