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Concept: The Essential


Sleep deprivation is common in critically ill patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). Noise and light in the ICU and the reduction in plasma melatonin play the essential roles. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of simulated ICU noise and light on nocturnal sleep quality, and compare the effectiveness of melatonin and earplugs and eye masks on sleep quality in these conditions in healthy subjects.

Concepts: Health care, Effect, Effectiveness, Intensive care medicine, Sleep, Sleep deprivation, Circadian rhythm, The Essential


In this paper, we report highly conductive, highly flexible, light weight and low cost printed graphene for wireless wearable communications applications. As a proof of concept, printed graphene enabled transmission lines and antennas on paper substrates were designed, fabricated and characterized. To explore its potentials in wearable communications applications, mechanically flexible transmission lines and antennas under various bended cases were experimentally studied. The measurement results demonstrate that the printed graphene can be used for RF signal transmitting, radiating and receiving, which represents some of the essential functionalities of RF signal processing in wireless wearable communications systems. Furthermore, the printed graphene can be processed at low temperature so that it is compatible with heat-sensitive flexible materials like papers and textiles. This work brings a step closer to the prospect to implement graphene enabled low cost and environmentally friendly wireless wearable communications systems in the near future.

Concepts: Signal processing, Paper, The Essential, Radio, Radio frequency, Proof of concept, Environmentally friendly, Transmission


INTRODUCTION: International evidence shows that enhancement of primary health care (PHC) services for disadvantaged populations is essential to reducing health and health care inequities. However, little is known about how to enhance equity at the organizational level within the PHC sector. Drawing on research conducted at two PHC Centres in Canada whose explicit mandates are to provide services to marginalized populations, the purpose of this paper is to discuss (a) the key dimensions of equity-oriented services to guide PHC organizations, and (b) strategies for operationalizing equity-oriented PHC services, particularly for marginalized populations. METHODS: The PHC Centres are located in two cities within urban neighborhoods recognized as among the poorest in Canada. Using a mixed methods ethnographic design, data were collected through intensive immersion in the Centres, and included: (a) in-depth interviews with a total of 114 participants (73 patients; 41 staff), (b) over 900 hours of participant observation, and © an analysis of key organizational documents, which shed light on the policy and funding environments. RESULTS: Through our analysis, we identified four key dimensions of equity-oriented PHC services: inequity-responsive care; trauma-informed care; contextually-tailored care; and culturally competent care. The operationalization of these key dimensions are identified as 10 strategies that intersect to optimize the effectiveness of PHC services, particularly through improvements in the quality of care, an improved ‘fit’ between people’s needs and services, enhanced trust and engagement by patients, and a shift from crisis-oriented care to continuity of care. Using illustrative examples from the data, these strategies are discussed to illuminate their relevance at three inter-related levels: organizational, clinical programming, and at the level of patient-provider interactions. CONCLUSIONS: These evidence- and theoretically-informed key dimensions and strategies provide direction for PHC organizations aiming to redress the increasing levels of health and health care inequities across population groups. The findings provide a framework for conceptualizing and operationalizing the essential elements of equity-oriented PHC services when working with marginalized populations, and will have broad application to a wide range of settings, contexts and jurisdictions. Future research is needed to link these strategies to quantifiable process and outcome measures, and to test their impact in diverse PHC settings.

Concepts: Health care, Clinical trial, Health disparities, Sociology, Illness, The Key, The Essential, Alliance for Healthy Cities


Artemisia gilvescens, a traditional Chinese medicinal plant, is chiefly distributed in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, China. Chemical composition of hydrodistilled essential oil from A. gilvescens was investigated by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), and larvicidal activity of the oil and its six main compounds against Anopheles anthropophagus was carried out by WHO method. In total, 56 compounds corresponding to 98.20 % of the total oil were identified and the major compounds identified were camphor (13.49 %), eucalyptol (12.13 %), terpine-4-ol (9.65 %), germacrene D (8.62 %), caryophyllene oxide (4.65 %), and caryophyllene (4.29 %). Essential oil induced 8, 46, 80, 85, 94, and 100 % larval mortality at the concentrations of 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, and 150 mg/l, and the LC(50) and LC(90) values were 49.95 and 97.36 mg/l, respectively. Among the six compounds, the most potent larvicidal compound was caryophyllene oxide and germacrene D, with LC(50) values of 49.46 and 49.81 mg/l and LC(90) values of 115.38 and 106.19 mg/l, respectively. Terpine-4-ol had LC(50) and LC(90) values of 76.70 and 139.42 mg/l followed by camphor which showed LC(50) and LC(90) values of 129.17 and 192.42 mg/l, respectively. The least potent among the six compounds were eucalyptol and caryophyllene, with and LC(50) value exceeding 200 mg/l. In general, it also shows a dose-dependent effect on mortality, with increasing concentrations of essential oil and compounds increasing mortality of the larvae. The essential oil of A. gilvescens and its several major compounds may have potential for use in control of A. anthropophagus.

Concepts: China, Chromatography, Yangtze River, Chemical compound, The Essential, Essential oil, Camphor, Lavender


In this study, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with CO(2) and hydrodistillation (HD) were compared as methods to isolate the essential oil from Cupressus sempervirens. The odour of the oil obtained by SFE at 90 bar and 40°C was very close to the odour of the leaves of C. sempervirens before the extraction. Compounds extracted by both SFE and HD were identified by GC-FID and GC-MS. Moreover, the difference in the chemical composition obtained by SFE and HD was quite noticeable qualitatively and quantitatively. Phenolic composition and antioxidant activity were also determined. Compared to HD, the SFE method presents some advantages: the extraction was completed after 1 h in SFE, although 4 h is necessary for HD, and the yield was improved by 34%. Finally, it has also been shown that SFE is very selective towards some specific components such as manoyl oxide, trans-totarol and α-acoradiene.

Concepts: Carbon dioxide, Chemical compound, Supercritical fluid, Supercritical fluid extraction, Yield, The Essential, Cupressus sempervirens, Cupressus


Artemisia argyi Lévl. et Van., a perennial herb with a strong volatile odor, is widely distrbuted in the world. Essential oil obtained from Artemisia argyi was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 32 components representing 91.74% of the total oil were identified and the main compounds in the oil were found to be eucalyptol (22.03%), β-pinene (14.53%), β-caryophyllene (9.24%) and (-)-camphor (5.45%). With a further isolation, four active constituents were obtained from the essential oil and identified as eucalyptol, β-pinene, β-caryophyllene and camphor. The essential oil and the four isolated compounds exhibited potential bioactivity against Lasioderma serricorne adults. In the progress of assay, it showed that the essential oil, camphor, eucalyptol, β-caryophyllene and β-pinene exhibited strong contact toxicity against L. serricorne adults with LD50 values of 6.42, 11.30, 15.58, 35.52, and 65.55 μg/adult, respectively. During the fumigant toxicity test, the essential oil, eucalyptol and camphor showed stronger fumigant toxicity against L. serricorne adults than β-pinene (LC50 = 29.03 mg/L air) with LC50 values of 8.04, 5.18 and 2.91 mg/L air. Moreover, the essential oil, eucalyptol, β-pinene and camphor also exhibited the strong repellency against L. serricorne adults, while, β-caryophyllene exhibited attracting activity relative to the positive control, DEET. The study revealed that the bioactivity properties of the essential oil can be attributed to the synergistic effects of its diverse major and minor components. The results indicate that the essential oil of A. argyi and the isolated compounds have potential to be developed into natural insecticides, fumigants or repellents in controlling insects in stored grains and traditional Chinese medicinal materials.

Concepts: Mass spectrometry, The Essential, Essential oil, Insect repellent, Camphor, Lasioderma serricorne


Coreopsis tinctoria flowering (CTF) tops from the Kunlun Mountains in Xinjing (north-western China) have been used for tea production for about a century. This study was to assess antioxidant, nitrite-scavenging and N-nitrosamine inhibitory and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil extracted from CTF tops. The essential oil was extracted through hydrodistillation and its chemical compositions were analysed by GC-MS. Seventy compounds of the oil were identified, representing 81.87% of total oil. The antioxidant capacities of the oil with IC50 values for scavenging DPPH and ABTS were 287.66 ± 12.60 and 1.251 ± 0.127 μg mL(- 1), respectively. The nitrite-scavenging and N-nitrosamine inhibitory activities (IC50) were 0.3912 ± 0.0127 and 0.6564 ± 0.036 μg mL(- 1), respectively. The oil has a certain antimicrobial capacity, but its capacity was weaker than that of penicillinG (24 μg mL(- 1)). The oil showed antioxidant and antimicrobial capacities and had a stronger nitrite-scavenging and N-nitrosamine inhibitory properties.

Concepts: Cinnamon, Tea, Green tea, The Essential, Kunlun Mountains


Zero-valent, or elemental, silicon nanostructures exhibit a number of properties that render them attractive for applications in nanomedicine. These materials hold significant promise for improving existing diagnostic and therapeutic techniques. This review summarizes some of the essential aspects of the fabrication techniques used to generate these fascinating nanostructures, comparing their material properties and suitability for biomedical applications. We examine the literature in regards to toxicity, biocompatibility and biodistribution of silicon nanoparticles, nanowires and nanotubes, with an emphasis on surface modification and its influence on cell adhesion and endocytosis. In the final part of this review, our attention is focused on current applications of the fabricated silicon nanostructures in nanomedicine, specifically examining drug and gene delivery, bioimaging and biosensing.

Concepts: Cell, Nanoparticle, Nanomaterials, Materials science, The Final, Material, Materials, The Essential


In order to find and develop new botanical pesticides against tobacco storage pests, bioactivity screening was performed. The essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of Liriope muscari was investigated by GC/MS and GC/FID. A total of 14 components representing 96.12% of the oil were identified and the main compounds in the oil were found to be methyl eugenol (42.15%) and safrole (17.15%), followed by myristicin (14.18%) and 3,5-dimethoxytoluene (10.60%). After screening, the essential oil exhibit potential insecticidal activity. In the progress of assay, it showed that the essential oil exhibited potent contact toxicity against Tribolium castaneum, Lasioderma serricorne and Liposcelis bostrychophila adults, with LD50 values of 13.36, 11.28 µg/adult and 21.37 µg/cm2, respectively. The essential oil also exhibited strong repellency against the three stored product insects. At the same concentrations, the essential oil was more repellent to T. castaneum than to L. serricorne adults. The results indicate that the essential oil of Liriope muscari has potential to be developed into a natural insecticide or repellent for controlling insects in stored tobacco and traditional Chinese medicinal materials.

Concepts: Insect, Traditional Chinese characters, Insecticide, The Essential, Storage, Lasioderma serricorne


A comprehensive discharge plan for a patient with a new stoma is needed to ensure the individual receives the necessary ostomy education prior to discharge. The plan should include teaching basic skills and providing information about how to manage the ostomy (ie, emptying and changing the pouch, how to order supplies, available manufacturers, dietary/fluid guidelines, potential complications, medications, and managing gas and odor), assisting with transitions in care, and providing information about resources for support and assistance. The purpose of this best practice guideline is to provide clinicians with a brief overview of the essential elements that should be included in the discharge plan to facilitate patient education and the transition of care from hospital to home.

Concepts: Hospital, Surgery, Education, Management, The Essential, Planning, Plan, Ostomy pouching system